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June 21, 2007


Leixlip Chronology 1750 - 1780 


Compiled by  


John Colgan  

1750:  Lingen Campbell and Sarah Sorley, of Leixlip, were granted a marriage licence [57th Report of the Deputy Keeper of Public Records in Ireland]. Collins’ Scottish Surnames, David Dorwood, (ed), Glasgow, 2000, notes (p317) that Sorrie sometimes appeared in Edinburgh for a sparse and scattered version of the surname Sorley. This, in turn, is from the Gaelic personal name, Somhairle, which was borrowed from the old Norse name Somerled, which means ‘summer warrior’. Campbell is Scottish, from cam béal, =crooked mouth.


1750:  John Johns(t)on, Dublin city, gentleman, demised to Christopher Glascock, Dublin city, gent., land called Tyans or Tyams land upper division, with the dwelling house, offices and appurtenances, part of the manor of Leixlip, for a term of 999 years. The deed was witnessed by Henry and James Glascock, and lodged with the Reg. of Deeds in 1752; Memo No 154-203-103385. Henry Glascock was the youngest brother of James Glascock and fourth son of Francis Glascock. [It seems that three other sons must have died since 1722.] 



1750: The Rt Hon Wm Conolly leased a mill in Rathfarnham to Thos Slator (bookseller, of the directory family). [Registry of Deeds Memo No: 141-95881-380]. 

1751: Wm Conolly leased lands in Dunsink and Castleknock to Thos. Starrat of Leixlip, and his wife, Alice aka Trotter, in a lease dated 7/8/1751. The deed [Registry of Deeds Memo No: 145-529-99832] was witnessed by Christopher Glascock. Starrat was Conolly's agent/ attorney in Leixlip: where did he live  - at Music Hall? The Glebe?  Newtown House? 

1751:  A lease from Wm Conolly to Wm McGowan, gardener, made 15/8/1751, showing a map of a house by Leixlip bridge as a rectangular plot with 230 feet frontage to the 'Street to Bridge', there is a 30 feet wide rectangular strip labelled 'Passage', along by the northern 'mill race', with Pomrett's garden to the rear (east) and Pomrett's house to the north (presumably separating the McGowan plot from Mill Lane). The house is approximately that taken up by the Caughey residence and the adjoining bungalow on the northern side. The lease was renewable forever at a rent of £4 4s including fees. The area is one rood.  

William Magown [sic] of Leixlip had a son, Christopher, baptised on 3/12/1750, and a daughter, Sarah, baptised 3/12/1752, according to St Mary's records.  

Two other related leases: one dated 5/10/1784 from Tom Conolly to Chris. McGowan, and another, a renewal, of 27/6/1805, to Wm McGowan, cabinet-maker. However, a Notice to Quit (included) was served on Denis Gribbon, then occupying the above premises, by Simmonds, agent for Edward Conolly, and dated 30/4/1836. [Castletown Papers, Box 26, IAA].  

Wm McGowan, of Leixlip, gardener, died intestate in 1784 [Deputy Keeper's 26th Report] 

His namesake, same details, died intestate in 1815 [Deputy Keeper's 30th Report]. This was probably his grandson, William, son of Christopher, who was baptised at St Mary's, 20/X/1781. 

1752:  Noble and Keenan's map of Co Kildare, to hand, clearly shows the old main road from the Salmon Leap Inn [shown crudely as a square] on the southern side of the river Liffey to Celbridge, passing the Newbridge en route. Leixlip's Liffey Bridge is shown, as is property where the Toll House and mills were. The county boundary with Dublin excludes Cooltrena [sic] from Co. Kildare. A significant house, unlabelled, is shown where Glascock's Musick Hall was located. Note that a Musick Hall also existed at the bottom of Fishamble St, Dublin, at this time. On 13/4/1742 Handel first performed his Messiah in public. See artist Johnathan Fisher's comments on the music and dancing at Leixlip: "This Castle stands in a bold picturesque situation on the N.W. side of the river, about eight miles from Dublin . The village of Leixlip :.. During the summer months it is much resorted by the citizens of Dublin for parties of pleasure, and also by company who use the sulphurous Spa at Lucan, in its neighbourhood; and is enlivened at this time by weekly balls.[Johnathan Fisher, , 1792-5] 

Note that, by way of contrast, in 1808, at the Curragh camp, balls were held every Thursday at the Standhouse… and a public ordinary every Sunday at three o’clock for ladies and gentlemen. This was calculated to relieve the tedium which want of society of their fair countrywomen must give, even in camp. [Quoted by Con Costello in A Most Delightful Station…, p12, from Sir Henry McAnally, The Irish Militia 1793-1816, Dublin, 1949, p228-9.] 


1752:  Archbishop Price dies, is buried in St. Mary's Church, Leixlip, on 30/7/1752 and left £100 to Arthur Guinness, son of Richard Guinness, in his will. [PRONI: D/3031/3/1, 1920]. Richard Guinness married, secondly, Elizabeth Clare of Leixlip. Bunbury & Kavanagh, opus cit, have her [on p105] as a widow. However, while several Elizabeth Clare, aka Clear, occur in the Leixlip Parish Register at that time, one Elizabeth Clare, wife of Benjamin Clare, died as a wife on 7/10/1723 and is buried in St Mary’s graveyard, Leixlip. The other Elizabeth mentioned was born to Jon Clear [sic] of Confiee [sic] and baptised at Confie [sic] on 9/1/1715; it is she who was most likely the wife of Richard Guinness. [Suzanne Pegley, Register of the Parish of Leixlip, Co. Kildare, Dublin , 2001.] 


1753: Wilson's Directory for 1769 records, among "Remarkable Events" the fact that 4,000 houses had been built in Dublin and its suburbs since 1711; at 8 persons to each house, this would increase the population by 32,000 inhabitants. This is the first issue of Wilson to provide for a "Remarkable Events" section; there is no reference in this to the Turnpike, or Leixlip bridge construction.   

1753:  P & O's Directory record in the Annals of Dublin section for this year that the foundation for the new Essex bridge of 5 arches was laid; it was finished in 1755, after the model of Westminster bridge, at an expense of £20,661 11s 4d. 

1753: About this year the trustees of the turnpike road from Mountrath, Co Laois, to Kilcormac, Co Offaly, built a bridge over the river Lumcloone, 88 feet long, 20 feet broad, 24 feet high, with three arches 20 feet broad for £400, the breastwork to be of hewn stone and lime.  This is more or less the size of Leixlip's bridge over the Liffey (but one must add the pair of millrace arches..). [E. O' Leary, from the minutes of the trustees, JKAS Vol7, no.2, 1912, p 118+.] Dr Charles Colgan was a trustee. 

1753:  The Rent Roll for y/e 25/3/1753 [Castletown Papers, Box 72, IAA]: Ingham's Holding is still with Christopher Glascock at a yearly rent of £16  0s  0d, and Marchfield with Mrs Grace Proby at £5 per year. 

There are several explanatory notes (of costs incurred) to the summary accounts to the rear of the Roll: 

"For gravelling New Bridge and the road to Raheenwade [sic] Gate [to Castletown]  ....................£9  6s  8d " 

"For taking down the steep hill at ye covered well of Leixlip and at ye entrance to new road ........£9  6s  10d" 

"For all improvement done at the Island , ending 25th March, 1753 (£10  14s  4d of this appears by an account in journal book commencing 29th July 1749)...................................................................£93  11s  5d" 

The steep hill and covered well referred to are most likely what is now the Old Hill and the stone-built covered-well joining Pound Street to the entrance to the new road, namely the Celbridge Road.  

1753:  Robert Sandford Jnr who lived for many years at Leixlip castle, (and with a town house at Sackville St, Dublin), was elected to the Irish Parliament, 20/10/1753 for a Kildare borough. He was the second son of Robert Sandford of Castlerea and MP for Boyle. In the Parliament of 1768-76, he represented the borough of Roscommon. He was born, 13/6/1722, joined the army and served as Cornet in the 5th RI Dragoons; Major to the Carabiniers under Prince Frederick of Brunswick , and Colonel of the 103rd Regiment of Foot. In 1768 he was appointed governor of Galway on half pay by the King, at which time he was Lieutenant Colonel. [Thomas Ulick Sadleir, ‘Kildare Members of Parliament’, JKAS, Vol VII, No 3, Jan 1913, p165-6.] 

1754:  A William Bruce, a magistrate in Placentia, Newfoundland , is mentioned in the context of many Irish there. Was he of the Leixlip family? There were Pippard and Glascock there too. See 1819. [Mike McCarthy, The Irish in Newfoundland, 1600-1900 - The Trials, Tribulations & Triumphs, St John’s, Newfoundland , 1999, p17.] A William Bruce was a bookseller and probably printer during the period, 1720 onwards, in Dublin . [James W Phillips, Printing & Bookselling in Dublin, 1670 -1800, Dublin , 1998.] 

1754:  William Conolly Jnr MP died. He was succeeded by his only son, Thomas, but as he was then under age, his widow, Lady Anne, moved to England leaving Castletown empty. Tom Conolly married Louisa Lennox on 30 December 1758 when he was 24 years old and they moved to Castletown the following year. At that time his estates were heavily encumbered with his father's debts. The Rt Hon Wm Conolly was listed as 'Cursitor, Court of Chancery, Temple Bar and Dunsink' in the Directory of Dublin , 1738. 


Rent Roll for y/e 25/3/1754

Chris. Glascock's annual rent on Ingham's holding plus the Black Castle lands was £16. 0 . 0 local currency.  

1755:  Rent Roll for y/e 25/3/1755

No change in Glascock and Inghams Holding; Laurence [aka Lawrence   -  see St Mary's grave headstone, which he had erected for himself and his posterity; there is no date] Conolly has the Corn Mills at £40 per year.


1755-8:  SALMON  -  Thos Salmon in memory of his father Walter and his mother. His mother d. on Good Tuesday 6/4/1755;His father d. on Good Friday 24/3/1758 (106)  - Extract from Ladychapel, nr Maynooth, churchyard memorials, compiled by Martin J Kelly. See Salmon’s distillery.


1755: A Walter Glascock, attorney, and 6th clerk in July 1750, died on 15/1/1775 [King's Inns’ Admissions Papers]. This Walter was probably the younger brother of James and 2nd son of Francis Glascock of Leixlip, who married Jane, only child, daughter and Administratrix of William Aldridge, Aldrick or Aldrich (in the HoC J), who was lord mayor of Dublin in 1741 and 1743. They had a daughter Mary and son William. Jane Glascock, alias Aldridge, of the Dublin diocese, had her will administered in 1799, a widow.  William married Letitia Scriven, daughter of Edward S.  This William was another attorney and he and Letitia had a son, Walter, born in Dublin . He boarded in TCD from October 7, 1793 when aged 15 and a half. He was awarded a BA in 1798 and an MA in 1805. He became an attorney in 1803.They also had a younger son, Edward, who also boarded at TCD; there is no record of his graduating  [Alumni, TCD and HoCJ, Vol. 6, p.147, 16/11/1759]. 


1756:  Arthur Guinness had possession of Reynor's Holding from 25/9/1756 and leased it for three lives from George Bryan of Philadelphia in 1760, having paid £264 and a rent of £11 sterling. A copy of the actual lease is to hand, signed by Arthur and George [provided by Conor O'Brien]. Richard Junior, Arthur's younger brother, ran the Leixlip brewery from 1759 to 1803, presumably because by 1759 Arthur had bought a second brewery at St James' Gate in that year. [Patrick Guinness, millennium paper]  Reynard, aka Raynor, is said to be Palatinate, from Germany ~1709  -  Matheson, Special Report on Surnames in Ireland, 1894.


1756:  Rent Roll for y/e 25/3/1756

No change in Glascock and Inghams Holding; Laurence Conolly has the Corn Mills at £40 per year.


1757:  Robert Randal (of Newbridge paper works?) petitioned the Commons on 9/11/1757 [HoCJ, Vol 6, p.29], claiming that he deserved encouragement. He had been 30 years in the paper business and made paper from linen rags, spending over £683 on the same and employed 33 people making printing and writing paper. He had built a mill at Rathfarnham and another was being made at 'Little Newtown'.


1757:  Rent Roll for 1757 has Ingham's Holding separated into a part at a rent of £6 5s 0d called Ingham's Holding and another part, called Black Castle at a rent of £1 15s 0d; both are with James Glascock, tenant. Note that the combined rent is £8 per half year and this report would have been written at the latest in the following year, when Chris. Glascock could have been dead. In this year Marchfield [sic] was tenanted by Mrs Grace Probie at a rent of £2 10s 0d. And the Corn Mills were rented to Laurence Conolly at £20 per half year.


This James Glascock was described as a solicitor at Chancery courts in practice in the year 1734/5 [King's Inns, ibid]. He would therefore have been born before 1713. Note the arrival of a second Jas Glascock later. 


1758:  This year the Kildare Knot of the charitable and humanist Ancient and Most Benevolent order of the Friendly Brothers of St. Patrick was founded. James Glascock of the Music Hall was inducted on 20/10/1758, and would therefore be a founding member, along with Arthur Guinness; his son, William Glascock of Kilcock and York St joined on 29/6/1776. The purpose of the club or society was to discourage duelling; it included social aspects, such as organising balls. Among the other Leixlip members to join over the period 1758 to 1791 were: Captain Thos. Atkinson, Marshfield, 1769; Captain/Major General Wm Brady, 1769; his son and namesake, Capt Wm Brady, 1781; Peter Bere aka Beere?, 1776;  John Brown, 1789; Charles Croker, Weston Park, 1776; Dr George Fergusson, Ivy House, 1788; Sir Ml Cromie, Stacumny, 1764; Nehemiah Donnellan, 1758;  Jas Glascock, Music Hall, Leixlip and York St, 1758; Wm Glascock, Kilcock and York St, Dublin, 1776; Richard Guinness, 1776; Rev. Singleton Harpur,1780;  Richard and Roger Jones, Kilcock;  Rev Wm Lambert, 1779;  Robert Lawe, Robertville, later Ryevale House, 1780 and his son [??], of same name, in 1781; Rev Edward Ledwich, (turnpike commissioner?) 1781;  John Letablere, 1777;  Francis McManus, Maynooth;  Thos Medlicott (related to Kings, millers), 1777; Hon George Napier, 1787; George Rainsford, 1779;  Dr Israel Read, Leixlip and Molesworth St, 1778; Rev. Loftus Robinson, Leixlip, 1789; Morley Saunders, 1787; Capt Thos Shepherd, son of Rev Sam Shepherd, poet, 1769; Lawrence Steel, Pound St, 1776; Captains Jas & Edward Tisdall; Nathaniel Warren, Springfield, Leixlip, 1780;  Hugh Wilson, 1759; [Patrick Guinness, ‘The meeting book of the County of Kildare Knot of the Friendly Brothers of St. Patrick, 1758-1791’, JKAS, Vol XIX, Part I, 2000-2001, p116-160.] [The Fundamental Laws, Statutes and Constitution of … the Friendly Brothers of St Patrick, Dublin , 1879.]


A Robert Law had an address at King St, Dublin , according to the Directory of Dublin , 1738.


1758:  Christopher Glascock, attorney, King's Bench, died, July, 1758 [King's Inns, ibid]. 


1758:  Indenture dated 29/9/1758 between Rt. Hon Thos Conolly, Castletown, and James Glascock, Dublin City , in which a right of interest in an annexed deed of lease of the premises thereby demised are now legally .. vested in the said James Glascock and Jas Glascock has paid Conolly a fine of £1 13s 6d to replace one of the three lives (now deceased) with another, that of his own, in respect of an [un]attached lease. [Castletown Papers, Box 39, IAA]. This would the James Glascock, the older, solicitor. 


1758: Thos. Conolly of Castletown, demised unto James Glascock, Senior, Esq., Dublin City on 29/12/1758, a small field of 1a 10p in Collinstown, (otherwise Collynstown, otherwise Collinblackstown) then in J Glascock's possession; bounded towards the south by the high road from Dublin to Mullingar, on the west by a bye-road leading to the Rye river and on the east and north by the lands of Rockfield, aka Mousick Hall [sic]., for a term of 31 years from the 1/5/1776 [sic]. The deed was witnessed by Henry Glascock, Gent, and by Daniel Magusty, Gent, both of Dublin City . [Registry of Deeds Memo No: 1758-195-362-130623. This Henry Glascock was more than likely he, the attorney, on the King's Bench, who would have trained sometime before 1752 and brother of James; he died without issue. [Burke's A Genealogical & Heraldic Dictionary of the Landed Gentry of Gt. & , 1858]


 1758:  Samuel Dixon established his linen printing mill on the site of the Leixlip distillery, Rye bank, Newtown. In the same year he and Elizabeth Brady obtained a marriage licence [26th Report of the Deputy Keeper]; most likely she was Elizabeth, the daughter of Major William Brady, turnpike trustee [1792, Turnpike Commissioners' Minutes].  Major became General, and d.28/5/1800; he is buried in St Mary's graveyard.  In the same grave is Miss Elizabeth Brady, who died in 1818; also several members of the Nesbitt family who, like Brady, lived in Leixlip House.


1758:  Rent Roll for half y/e 25/3/1758 

No change in Glascock (or others of interest). 

There is a note in the summary accounts to the rear on the Cr. side, thus: 

"By paid Wm Molyneux, Mr Conolly's proportion of expense for repairing the Mill watercourse at Leixlip, for receipt £53  19s  6¼. "                

 [Castletown Papers, box 72, IAA] 


This William Molyneux may be he who, with Mary Hinche, who obtained a marriage licence in 1757 [Deputy Keeper's 26th Report].  The repairs to the mill watercourse at Leixlip may well be the those done to join the upper (northern) mill race to the lower (southern) mill race immediately east of Leixlip bridge; the deed from 1732 (to Twigg et al) has two parallel mill courses; in Robinson Roe's deed of 1869 it was shown in the combined mode. 


1758:  The Rt Hon Tom Conolly married Lady Louisa Lennox , 30/12/1758, when he was then 24 years old. 


1758:  Lucan Spa was discovered this year. 


1759:  Samuel Dixon, Thos. Taylor and Walter Johnson petitioned the IHoC for Aid to extend and carry on their Linen Printing Manufactury at Leixslip [sic] -  9/11/1759 [HoCJ, Vol 6, p138]. Similar petitions were received from Jonathan Sisson (of Lucan?) and others  - also from cotton, calico and paper makers. Dixon et al 's petition set out that the "Petitioners, by long Study and Application hath brought the Art of impressing Linens from metal Plates to such a Perfection as is not imitable by Wooden Stamps, or by any other Material or Invention for the Purpose, the said Impressions being taken from the most curious Drawings and Engravings, whereby Light and Shade are joined by the Exactness of Design."  They had devised a new method, by imitating and fixing natural Colours of animals, flowers, etc. on Linens and they endure bleach and wash without decay.  It is cheap to make. The petitioners have taken a Concern at Leixlip for 3 lives renewable for ever, whereon they have expended upwards of £2000 in buildings, machines, copper plates etc. Since June 1758, they have worked off 80K yards of impressed Linen, about one twentieth of what they could do if enabled. The wanted money to expand "by additional hands, Bleach Yards,.."  They received no funding as a result; see 1763. 


Samuel Dixon (fl.1748-1769) was a water colourist and a brother of John Dixon, the engraver. He traded as a picture dealer and painter in Capel Street in 1748, becoming noted for his flower and bird pieces in basso-relievo, using copper plates to impress the designs on grey paper from the back etc.  Walter Johnson had a daughter, Elizabeth, born, 30/11/17158, Leixlip [St Mary's Parish Records]. 


1759:  Jane Glascock, widow of William G., and only child of the ex-mayor of Dublin, Aldrige, petitioned the HoC to renew Acts for erecting and continuing public lights in Dublin city  - on 14/11/1759 [HoCJ, Vol 6, p145]. On the 16/11/1759, Mr Gardiner, representing the committee which heard her, reported that every allegation she made was properly supported by evidence. On the 17/11/1759 the then Lord Mayor, Aldermen, etc. of Dublin petitioned asking that they be given the power to deal with the lights [p150, ibid]. The House decided to prepare Heads of a Bill for that purpose.


Rent Roll for half y/e 25/3/1759 

No change in Glascock (or others of interest). The summary accounts to the rear confirm that Charles Davis is the rent collector. [Castletown Papers, box 72, IAA] 


1759:  The Thos. Conollys moved to Castletown House in October, 1759. A map attached to a lease from Conolly to Jos. Cooper, done in January, 1759 shows as a 'new road' the Barnhall Road from the Newbridge towards Leixlip; it is notable that the same road  - currently called the Celbridge /Barnhall road from Leixlip, was not an item on Noble and Keenan's 1752 map of Co. Kildare. The Directory of Dublin, 1738, listed Thomas Cooper as deputy secretary to the Lord Chancellor, at Peter St (business address), Wm Cooper as chief examiner and deputy register, Court of Chancery, Darby Square (corner of Werburgh St?), with a residence at Coleraine St.


Joseph Cooper of Barnhall, Co. Kildare d.2/7/1786, aged 84; his wife, Hanna Euphemia (nee Delamain) died 27/1/1786 aged 64.  Her mother was Sarah Steele and father Henry Delamain (headstone, St. Mary's). The Directory of Dublin, 1734, listed a John and William Delamain, as actor and dancing director, respectively, at the Theatre Royal, Aungier St, Dublin. At the beginning of 1757, Henry Delamain, of Palmerstown, a delph and earthenware manufacturer, received a grant for building mills at Palmerstown. [Nessa O’Connor, Palmerstown – An Ancient Place, Dublin, 2003, p20.]


1759:  Arthur Guinness buys the run-down brewery at St James' Gate from the Rainsford family (using his wife to be, Olivia Whitmore's dowry of £1000 to pay for it [Patrick Guinness, millennium paper]. A brewer named Giles Mee was given a lease to the water rights at the site of the brewery (The Pipes) in 1670 and these were taken over by Sir Mark Rainsford, a city alderman. He went out of business in 1715, leasing the premises to a Paul Espinasse, who transferred it to Arthur Guinness (aged 34), eldest son of Richard G. of Celbridge, in 1759. [Adrian MacLoughlin, Historic Dublin, 1979, p166; he has more on the origin of porter in this page.]


1759: Simon Bradstreet, of Stacumney, Leixlip [sic], was made a Baronet this year. [Watson’s Almanack, 1818].


c1759:  “Shortly after 1758, when the medicinal properties of the [Lucan] spa were discovered, the place had a long run of popularity, and became quite a famous sanitorium…  The place was thronged with the wealthy classes…  Its popularity was not, however, destined to last; … the heavy impost of turnpikes in the neighbourhood probably contributed to its downfall”.  - so wrote Weston St John Joyce, in 1901, in his Lucan and its neighbourhood, Dublin , 1901 p3.  The same comments will have application to Leixlip spa. [Dr Aug. Heron, “Remarks upon the efficacy of Lucan Spa”, Dublin 1818; it may contain references to the Leixlip waters, which were discovered in 1793].

1760:  Rent Roll for y/e 25/3/1760 

No change in Glascock (or others of interest).  [Castletown Papers, box 72, IAA] 

1761: On 3rd March, 1761, the 19th Earl, Robert FitzGerald, was made Marquis of Kildare, while being Master-general of Ordnance with the Irish government. [Padraic O’Ferrall, A History of County Kildare, Dublin , 2003, p53.]

1761:  John Wynn Baker, an Englishman, settled on a farm in the townland of Loughlinstown, near Stacumny, and with the aid of the Dublin Society, set aboutimproving farming. He carried out experiments on wheat and turnips and started a school for boys where they could be taught good farming methods.  In 1764 he set up a farm implement factory there, making several types of ploughs, mostly of timber. He also made farm carts with spoked wheels and iron axles.  He had a fire at his premises in 1766 and lost his son soon after. He died in 1775 and is buried in Tea Lane Cemetery, where he is described as one of the greatest improvers of husbandry and its implements that the kingdom has ever seen. [Tony Doohan, A History of Celbridge, Celbridge, c1984, p83-4.]  See correspondence from relatives.

 1763: Rent Roll of Leixlip for the Half year to 1st May, 1763
Includes:                 Half Year Rent
Iron Mills              -                    Wm. Molyneux                16 - 0 -  0
Tyans Land           -                    John Johnson                     4  -  0  - 1
Inghams Holding    -                   Chris. Glascock                 8  -  0  -  0
Shoemaker's Tenement -            Wm McGowan                  2  -  2  -  0
Corn Mills              -                   Laur. Conolly                  20 -  0 -  0
Hamilton Farm         -                 Wm. Roe                        11 -17 -  6
Salmon Leap Inn     -                  Peter Gaynor                    7  -  1  -  0
Slaughterhouse        -                 Wm Whealon                    6  -10 -  1½
Bridge Tenement [Rye] -            Thos. Swords                    0  -15 -  9  

[Castletown Papers, box 72. IAA]

Hamilton's farm was most likely occupied by a Hamilton when Wm Conolly purchased the town in 1728.  At 1738 there were 7 Hamiltons listed in the Directory of Dublin.  Included were John Hamilton, Commissioner of Oyer and Terminer [= to give a court hearing and a determination] for Dublin County; and Leslie Hamilton, Attorney, of Stafford St. Other Hamiltons were Edward, and James (booksellers), John (goldsmith) William (wigmaker) and William (physician).

There were no changes in the key tenancies during the Rent rolls for 1761, 1762 and rest of 1763.

William McGowen [sic], of Leixlip, Co Dublin [sic], gardener, died intestate in 1784. [Deputy Keeper's 26th Report]

William Whelan [sic] had a daughter, Bridget, baptised 28/6/1741; and a son, John, b. 23/11/1742, at St Mary's.

1764:  Lease dated 22/12/1764 between Thos Conolly and John Keegan of Leixlip, relating to several lands touching on Green Lane, Leixlip. [Castletown Papers, Box 24, IAA].  Of interest is that virtually the whole of the lease is pre-printed  -  a pro forma lease  - with some particulars written in. These pre-printed bits include references to the Tuck Mills of Celbridge and Leixlip, and requiring the tucking done on any woollen etc materials which might be produced on the lands covered by the lease to be done in these mills. [Castletown Papers, box 21, IAA]. John Keegan's father, Owen Keegan, died 23/6/1764 aged 67 and is buried in St Mary's graveyard. Several generations of Keegans followed, marrying into the Coogan family of Leixlip in the 19th century [See gravestones, St Mary's, Coogan].

1764:  Wilson's Dublin Street Directory, 1764 records James Glascock, as an attorney (= solicitor), 'Remembrancer, Clerk and Receiver of the First Fruits,' at Chancery Lane with Henry Glascock, another lawyer.

"First fruit":  Ecclesiastical and feudal law: a payment, usually representing the amount of the first year's income, formerly paid by each new holder of a feudal or ecclesiastical benefice, or any office of profit, to some superior. In 1767 "The king used to take.. the first fruits, that is to say, one year's profits of the land".-  Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition, Volume V.

1764:  Agmonisham Vesey leased lands at Tubbernaclug, Co. Dublin, to John Fellows, Leixlip, Co. Kildare, a smith. [Sarsfield Deeds, No. 251, in 56th Report of the Deputy Keeper of Public Records in Ireland] See 1740 for details of John Fellows.

1765:  Samuel Dixon left his Leixlip plant this for London; it was taken over by George Moore, a linen draper, who spent three years (to 1768) failing to make a go of it. It was then taken over by Harpur and Cunningham [Ada Longfield, JKAS].

1765:  This year a government Act initiated repairs to Jakis’s bridge at Kilcullen, and another at Harristown, which had been broken in Cromwellian times [Con Costello, Kildare, Donaghdee, Co Down, 2005, p40]. Would the Newbridge [aka New Bridge] at Parsonstown have been similarly damaged and repaired under this legislation?

1766:  Lease dated 16/9/1766 from Thos Conolly to John King of Celbridge (6a 3r 10p) corn mills of Leixlip as were formerly held by Lawrence Conolly, "with the toll multure requisites profits... to be had and made by the same Mills.." for 31 years or 3 lives.  From the area, this is similar to the lease of 1788, where a map is available. [Castletown Papers, box 27, IAA]. Lena Boylan writes in ‘Mills of Kildrought’, JKAS, that John King was a Dubliner who came to Celbridge in 1744 from Newtown, near Rathoath in Co Meath. He was originally a saddler who in 1744 got a 21 years' lease of 38 acres of land at this Newtown, near Dunboyne. On the land was a brewery with equipment, the use of which was included in his lease. In 1764 he got a lease on the corn and tuck mills of Celbridge (Newbridge?), prior to getting the Leixlip mills this year, 1766. John King had purchased what is now called Jasmine Lodge, at the corner of Main Street, Celbridge and Maynooth Road by Castletown Gates, from Charles Davis, who had built the house in 1750. [Lena Boylan, ‘Mulligan's House, Jasmine Lodge’, in Celbridge Charter, No. 59, March 1978.]

1766:  Grace Alice Cane of Leixlip married Lieutenant Atkinson on 7/6/1766, according to St Mary's records. They lived at Marshfield, Mill Lane.

1766:  16/9/1766 John King (who lived in Mulligan's house on Main St, Celbridge, at the corner of Maynooth Road, was granted the corn mills of Leixlip, previously held by Laurence Conolly. These he was to hold for the lives of Edward King, his only son, Patrick Sandes and George King. Edward was a distiller in Celbridge with his father. In 1771 he married Katherine Medlicott, dau of the late Rev Jas Medlicott, of Tullow. By a settlement made in March 1771, his father released to him the family house and other property in Celbridge.  John King went to live in Clondalkin, where he died in 1784 [probate granted, 1785]. The Leixlip mills were to be held in trust for John King for his life, and afterwards Edward was to inherit. Edward continued distilling at Leixlip. In 1788 he was evicted from Leixlip Mills.  [Lena Boylan, ‘The Mills of Kildrought’, JKAS, Vol 15 No 2, 1972, p154-155.]

1766: Augustus Frederick Fizgerald, 19th Earl, was created Duke of Leinster on 16th November 1766; he was father of Lord Edward FitzGerald (1763-1798).  He had a residence at Dominick St., Dublin, and Carton. He was President of the Kildare Farming Society and Grand Master of the Freemasons in Ireland. [Watson’s Almanack, 1818].

1766/7:  Richard Guinness, father of Arthur, died in Leixlip.  [Patrick Guinness, millennium paper] Richard’s son, Thomas, was buried in Leixlip in July, 1779 according to St Mary's burial records.

1767:  Rent rolls for the year 1767 have some useful notes attached, citing the number and names of lives on each lease.  An interesting observation in respect of the Salmon Leap Inn tenancy to Nicholas Gaynor states: "Eliz. Gaynor of Leixlip, widow and mother of Nicholas Gaynor  - assigned to Mr Conolly and let to John Whealon from May 1769". It is unlikely that this is the same Eliz. Gaynor who died intestate in 1795 [26th Report of the Deputy Keeper of Public Records in Ireland]. John Whelan, [sic], Leixlip, Co. Dublin, innholder, died with will, 1770  - 26th Report, ibid. [Castletown Papers, Box 72, IAA]

1768:  Rent Roll of Leixlip for the Half year to 1st November, 1768

Includes:                Half Year Rent
Iron Mills                          -                Wm. Molyneux       16 - 0 -  0
Tyans Land                      -                 James Glascock       4  -  2  - 0
Inghams Holding               -                James Glascock        8  -  0  -  3 ¼
Corn Mills                        -                John King               40 - 0 -  0
pt. of Hamiltons Farm      -                 James Glascock        2 -  10 – 11¼
Salmon Leap Inn             -                 Mrs. Gaynor             7  -  1  -  0
Marchfield                      -                 Mrs Cane                 2  -  10 - 0

There is an observation in respect of the Salmon Leap Inn holding: "This and the half year's rent due at May 1769 [combined arrears].  Mrs Conolly forgave her.  John Whealon commenced tenant from May 1769 at £45 per year.  N.B. to pay two guineas per acre for the 8 acres only [part of the Swan holding rented at £6 per half year to Mrs Gaynor/ Whealon], from Nov. 1769, till the Inn be rebuilt".    [Castletown Papers, box 72, IAA] The Swan referred to may be a Captain Swan, of Smithfield, Dublin (from 1738 Directory of Dublin).

1767-72:  WA Henderson, writing in the Evening Herald, c July 1914, notes that Lord Townshend stayed at Leixlip Castle when he was Lord Lieutenant, during 1767-72. [RD Walshe, Cuttings and Notes, Lucan and Leixlip, 20th c, MS 11658 NLI.]
He opened the grounds of the castle to the citizens of the area and Dublin at the week-end. A levee was held each Monday; amateur theatricals were put on. Lady Townshend, who was one of the beautiful Montgomery sisters, died there on 14/9/1770. There is no record of her death in St Mary’s Parish Register, nor on gravestones at either Confey or St Mary’s.  The sisters were Anne, Barbara (m to John Beresford) and Elizabeth.

1768:  Falkner’s Dublin Journal, 23-25/6/1768: is reported by AKL in JKAS, Vol XVI, No 5, 1985/86, p529, thus: 
"25/6/1768 -  Leixlip Castle being now furnished in the most commodious Manner, for the reception of his Excellency Lord Townshend, his Ex. & his Lady, attended by their Hsehold, will go thither on Mon. next for the summer Season. There are more fine Country Seats in this delightful Neighbourhood than in any Part of the Kgd."

1768 - 71: Rent Rolls, Leixlip, for the three years, 1/11/1768 to 1/11/1771
Little of note in relation to key tenancies of interest. There is a further note in relation to developments at the Salmon Leap Inn, being rebuilt. Tenant to pay £18  4s  0d yearly for both Inn and 8 acres until the Inn has been rebuilt.

There is a note in the accounts at the rear alluding to the death of Tom Conolly's father, and Tom being not yet of age, thus: "Lady Anne Conolly, Nathaniel Clements, Henry Mitchell, Michael Clarke,  -  Guardians of Thos. Conolly Esq."
[Castletown Papers, box 72, IAA]

1769:  Patrick Chas Thos Townsend [Townshend?] was born to his Excellency George Lord Viscount, Lieut. General and General Governor of Ireland, was baptised in St Mary's, Leixlip on 7/2/1769.  [St Mary's records]  He probably lived in Leixlip Castle.

1769:  New Quarters of the Army, May 1769, reproduced in Irish Sword, Vol II, 1956, p230-1, cited the 59 locations in Ireland of horse, dragoon and foot regiments.




1771:  John King transferred Jasmine Lodge [north-west end of

Main St

, Celbridge] and the adjoining property to his eldest son, Edward, who married Katherine Medlicott.  John went, with his wife, to live in Clondalkin, where he had taken land beside the old castle there. [Lena Boylan, Mulligan's House, ibid]









1771:  The Roman Catholic parish of Leixlip is mentioned (for the last time?), bracketed with the parish of Maynooth, as it were in contemplation of a merger. The Leixlip parish priest was Peter Berril, a Jesuit, and Clement Kelly was the PP at Maynooth, in a list compiled by Dr Carpenter, RC archbishop of Dublin Diocese.  Altogether, 46 parishes existed in that Diocese then. [Cited by W M O’Riordan, ‘The Succession of Parish Priests in the Archdiocese of Dublin, 1771-1851’, Reportorium Novum, Vol 1 No 1, Dublin, 1955, p406-433.]  There is no mention of a Lucan parish; it may be part of Palmerstown.


1772:  Walker’s Hibernian Magazine had the following Marriage Announcement:  Rev. Dean Hamilton married Miss Wood, August 1772 [p456].  They lived at Hamwood, between Leixlip and Dunboyne.


1772:  Rent Roll for the half year ending 1/11/1772

Corn Mills                -               John King                £40  0s  0d

Tyans Land              -              James Glascock        £4    0s  0d

Inghams Holding      -                 ditto                       £8   0s  3¼d

pt. of Hamiltons Farm -              ditto                       £2 10s 11¼d          

 [Castletown Papers, box 72, IAA] 


1772:  The directors of the Grand Canal Company included Thomas Conolly, Castletown, and the Rt. Hon. Nathaniel Clements, Woodville, Leixlip. Leixlip is an error; it was Lucan. This NC was the son of the earlier one. ["The Grand Canal ", H. Philips, in JKAS, vol.IX, p.437]. 


1772:  The House of Commons made an order for details of expenditure of £1202 7s 10¼d paid to Hugh Henry Mitchell Esq. for works done at Dublin Castle & Leixlip [HoCJ, p.473, Vol. 8, 6/2/1772]. An account of the expenditure on work done or goods delivered at Leixlip [Castle] from 25/3/1768 to 25/3/1771 is provided in the Appendix to the said Journal on p. ccccxci. This report was dated 14/5/1772 and issued by the Barrack-office. The craftsmen were all identified by name; however, none of those mentioned was readily identifiable as a local person, although they may have been. A total sum of £1003 9s 0 1/2d was paid on the same date, 14/2/1769, to those working at or for Leixlip castle. The largest amounts (in descending order) were paid to a carpenter, painter, cabinet-maker, plumber, bricklayer, waggoner, upholder. Much smaller payments were made to workers in the following fields: smith, tin, carpeting, lamplighting, stone-cutter, glazier, brazier, clock-maker, slator, glassman, pump-maker, paper stainer. In each case the moneys paid were for repairing, improving or building on Leixlip castle. 


1772:  Earl Harcourt, Viceroy, occupied Leixlip Castle about now.  His nephew was Archbishop Vernon of New York , and was the grandfather of Sir Wm Harcourt, MP. The Earl had been sent to this year to introduce much needed reforms. He failed to take the Irish Parliament with him in this respect. [ RD Walshe, Cuttings and Notes, Lucan and Leixlip, 20th c, MS 11658 NLI, cited in a newspaper (name unknown) clipping of 20/5/1903.] 


1772:  An Act was made to preclude burials inside in churches except in tombs accessible only to the outside and no burials were to be made nearer than 12 feet of the outside walls; the law was made to protect the public health and came into effect from 1/8/1772. [Irish Statutes, Vol.10, 1769 to 1776.] 


1773/78:  The Appendix to the House of Commons Journal for this period reports many petitions to the Parliament from linen, cotton and calico printers, each seeking support or protectionist measures of the Parliament for their industry; [See Petitions nos. 418 to 427, HoCJ, Vol 9, p439.] 


1773:  Rent Rolls for the period to November, 1773 indicate very large arrears in all three Glascock properties. There are no comments or observations made in the rolls [Castletown Papers, Box 72, IAA]. 


1773:  Attached to the principal indenture on the Tenter park and Furryhill park is another dated 1/1/1773, in which Tom Conolly, successor to Wm Conolly, agrees with James Glascock, successor to Christopher, to "fill up the lives" as one of those nominated, Catherine Conolly, is now dead and James paid a fine of £6 to Tom Conolly for the latter's consent to the nomination of George, Prince of Wales as the new life to be added. 


1774:  Walker’s Hibernian Magazine had the following Marriage Announcement: Benjamin Chapman, Jnr., barrister at law, MP for borough of Fore, married Miss Lowther, daughter of James, Staffordstown, Co Meath, February 1776 [p143]. 


1774:  Included in a Rent Roll of Leixlip Estate for the half year to 1/11/1774, were: Corn Mills - John King - £40; Iron Mills - Daniel Marston - £16; Salmon Leap Inn - Widow Whelan - £9 2s 0d; and Shoemaker's Tenement - Chris McGowan - £2 2s 0d.  [Castletown Papers, Box 25, IAA]. 


1774:  Jane Glascock, Dublin , widow, died with will of 1774 [26th Report of the Deputy Keeper]. Another Jane Glascock, alias Albridge, and widow, had her will administered in 1799.


1775:  Walker’s Hibernian Magazine had the following Marriage Announcement:  William Glascock, Secretary to the Lord Mayor, married Miss Scriven, eldest daughter of Edward Scriven of Dawson St., 3 July 1775 [p437].


1775:  Walker’s Hibernian Magazine had the following Marriage Announcement: William Sisson, of Lucan [linen], married Miss Harrison, Seaford, Sussex, England, 19/10/1775 [p630]. A Miss Harrison lived at Cooldrinagh.





1775:  Rent Rolls for the two years ending 1/11/1775, include a note that Glascock's lands were with John Dowan(s), who had lands near Inghams, and Captain Brady. 


1775 - 78: Rent Roll for Half Years ending 1/11/1775 to 1/5/ 1778, Leixlip Estate [Castletown Papers, Box 72, IAA.] 


Some changes noted included, Bridge Tenement now with Simon Tankard; Corn Mills with John King; Iron Mills with Daniel Marston and Shingle House with Charles Fellows. A memorial stone in St Mary's, graveyard, erected by Edward Tankard, commemorates his father, Simon Tankard who d.9/9/1736, probably the father to the above Simon Tankard. James Glascock's three properties were very much in arrears thus: 

Tyans lands         £4  2s  0d  half yearly rent;  arrears at end of period, £24  12s  0d 

Inghams Holding  £8  0s 3¼d   ditto;                              ditto,            £48   1s   7½d pt. Hamiltons Farm    £2 10s 11¼d  ditto;                      ditto;           £15   5s   7½d.


A Charles Fellows and Anne Burton [probably Barton] obtained a marriage licence in 1735.  A John Fellows, brewer, of Leixlip, died c.1768 leaving a will [Deputy Keeper's 26th Report].  See 1764 for John Fellows. 


Perhaps James Glascock, the older, who would now be about 64 years old, may have died, hence the arrears?


1776:  Thomas (or Charles?) Croker and his wife, Anne, nee Ryves, niece of Dr Robert Clayton, bishop of Clogher, sold part of Donaghcomper called Rockfield to Arthur Maguire for £939.  [Tony Doohan, A History of Celbridge, Celbridge, c1984, p46.] 


1776: Lord Harcourt, the Lord Lieutenant, must have had a lease on St Wolstan’s at this time, for on 24th June 1776, he invited Arthur Young to make his quarters there during his tour. [Arthur Young, A Tour of , 1776-1779, London , 1887, p19.] 


1776/9:  “All the lower ranks of this city ( Dublin ) have no idea of English cleanliness, either in apartments, persons or cookery.” – [Arthur Young, A Tour of , 1776-1779, London , 1887, p16.] “Before I conclude with Dublin I shall only remark, that walking in the streets there,  .. as well as from the dirt and wretchedness of the canal, is a most uneasy and disgusting exercise.” [p.18, ibid]. 


1776/9:  Young describes the state of the salmon fishery on the River Bann at Coleraine, Co Derry , as the greatest in the kingdom. Salmon run into the Bann from its tributaries in August (after spawning), when they are taken. Nets are laid down from January to August. In the year in question, 400 tons were caught, of which 200 tons were sold fresh at 1d to 1½ d per lb, and the rest salted and exported to London, and . 80 men were employed [Arthur Young, A Tour of , 1776-1779, London , 1887, p56-7]. This would give a good indication of the analogous situation at the salmon leap on the Liffey at Leixlip. Both locations are the places early man first settled in , c5,500 years ago. 


1776/69: Arthur Young visited Sir James Caldwell’s Castle Caldwell by the salmon leap at Ballyshannon. [Arthur Young, A Tour of , 1776-1779, London , 1887, p59-60.]  


1777: Walker's Hibernian Magazine had the following Marriage Announcement: R[ichard] Steele, Leixlip [now The Glebe] married Ann Lewis, Drogheda St., Dublin, July 1777 [p512].


1777: William Glascock is listed in Wilson 's as secretary to the Lord Mayor, at Dawson Street.


 Perhaps he's the Wm Glascock who qualified as a solicitor in February 1774, having begun training in 1772? [King's Inns, ibid] 

1777:  Andrew Ennis was made PP of Maynooth on 7/4/1777. [Cited by W M O’Riordan, ‘The Succession of Parish Priests in the Archdiocese of Dublin, 1771-1851’, Reportorium Novum, Vol 1, No 1, Dublin, 1955, p406-433.] He was trained at Salamanca, France, and ordained in 1773. [ibid, p488.] This is likely to have been the end of Leixlip as a separate parish, for about two hundred years.  The reason?  Probably because Maynooth was a poorer and smaller area than Leixlip, and it suited the Archbishop to boost Maynooth’s status, as the Royal College of St Patrick’s seminary was now there. Also, the Duke of Leinster had the most clout.



1778:  Thomas Goodshaw and Elizabeth Lawrence obtained a marriage licence this year. [24th Report of the Deputy Keeper of Public Records in .] 

1778:  Between 1778 and 1780, there was no significant change in the status of the tenants of interest (ie, re Toll House) at Leixlip. 

1778/9: A voluntary force of infantry, cavalry and artillery was established, mainly by local gentry, in the absence of government troops abroad at war in North America since 1775.  Captain the Hon. Thos. Conolly of the Castletown Union was a local regiment. ['Ballads and Poems of the County Kildare ', in JKAS, Vol 6, no.4, 1910, p349; a badge of the Carton Cavalry is shown on p351.][See Thomas MacNevin, A History of the Volunteer Movement in , 1845.] 

1778:  A document entitled:  5 half years end May 1778   -  Answers to Mr Bulkeley's Queries  -  Leixlip.  

The first query may be of interest: 

"No.1. John Dowans.  His lease expired at Nov. 1775, at which time Mr Marston took one part of it, the other part lay waste until May 1776, occasioned by Mr Conolly's being in England, and tho' wrote to by Captain Brady (the present tenant) and Mr Coane, he gave no immediate answer".  [ Box 76, Castletown Papers, IAA] 

John Downes [sic] and Elinor Campbell obtained a marriage licence in 1774 [26th Report of the Deputy Keeper.] 

A lease dated 20/4/1859 [Registry of Deeds Memo No1859-13-239] recites an earlier lease dated 8/11/1800 which delineates John Downes' land .It was said to be 7 acres 5 perches plantation measure, bounded on the north and north-east by Capt. Atkinson's holding; on the south by the road from Leixlip to Confey; on the west by the late Wm. McGowan's holding; on the north-west by Arthur Guinness's holding. 

1778: George Walker Bruce, son of Wm. Bruce and Jane Bruce nee Walker of Leixlip was baptised, 6/6/1778 at St Mary's, Leixlip.  [vide c.1795: he received a state pension..]  


1780:  James Glascock the younger, who qualified as an attorney in February 1770, and William Glascock, who qualified in February, 1774, have moved to York Street; James is now "Escheater of Leinster". [King's Inns, ibid, and street directories]. William is most likely he, the only son of Walter Glascock (who married Jane Aldridge); Walter was the 2nd son of Francis Glascock and brother of Jas. Glascock, Snr.

 " 'Escheat (n): Law - an incident of feudal law, whereby a fief reverted to the lord when the tenant died without leaving a successor qualified to inherit under the original grant.  Hence lapsing of land to the Crown or State, or to the lord of the manor, on the death of the owner intestate without heirs. " This law was partly abolished by the Felony Act, 1870, in cases where the blood line has been broken.  OED, 2nd Ed. ' Escheat' (v), confiscate; hand over property as an escheat (to person, into his hands)”  - Concise Oxford Dictionary.  'Escheator' : “an officer appointed yearly by the Lord Treasurer to take notice of the escheats in the county to which he is appointed and to certify them to the Exchequer" - Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd Edition



1780:  Journal, Leixlip - Half Year ending May 1780, and subtitled:  Began to receive, Nov. 13, 1780.  


Among the entries listed: 


Received from Danl. Marston, half years rent for Iron Mills,  £16 - 0 - 0.


Ditto... for part of Dowan's holding,                  £4 - 5 - 0.


Ditto.. from John King, for Mills of Leixlip,   £40 - 0 - 0.


Glascock, tenant of three properties, was not mentioned [He may be in arrears].  [Castletown Papers, box 76, IAA]


1780: Con Costello, Kildare Saints, Soldiers & Horses, Naas, 1991, p13:  observes that Arthur Young’s A Tour in Ireland, 1780, visited St Wolstan’s, Carton and Castletown; Costello doesn’t mention Leixlip.

A Chronology of Leixlip 1750 - 1780 AD compiled by John Colgan. Our thanks to John.





Leixlip Chronology 1731 - 1749

Compiled by

John Colgan

1731: The Rt. Hon William Conolly (Jnr) purchased various lands (not all in Co. Kildare), including the manor, castles etc. of Leixlip, Newtown and Stockumny [sic] from John Whyte [White] of Leixlip. George Finey of Celbridge acting as Conolly's agent, which lands Whyte had earlier (2/6/1728) mortgaged for £4,000 to John Usher of Dublin City and agreed to sell in fee simple to William Conolly (snr) before his death for £11,883. Registry of Deeds Memorial No. 67-382-46484 (3 ½ pages) refers. The full deed (there is no map) is in box 28, Castletown Papers, IAA. Included were: .."all houses, buildings, mills, mill seats, mill streams, ways, waters, fishings, fisheries, woods, underwoods, commons .." etc at an annual rent of £210 for the life of John Whyte, for ever. Leixlip castle remained in the Conolly family until 1914, when it was sold to Lord Decies.

NB:  George Finey Senior, from Limavaddy, Co. Londonderry, is the nephew of the late Wm. (Speaker) Conolly and lived at Killadoon, nr Celbridge from 1729, having taken a lease on it then. The current occupier of Lodge Park, Straffan, Robert Arthur Guinness, has stated that three sets of gates from Killadoon House are now at the Toll House. George was succeeded by his son of the same name, a small farmer; he lived in a house at Main Street, Celbridge, with the year 1724 attached, and died in 1752. [Lena Boylan, Celbridge Charter, No. 6, December 1977]

A second deed, on the same property as above, for one year at a rent of 5/= from 6/8/1731.  This deed is registered at the Registry of Deeds, Memo No: 67-382-46484. This deed contains a list dated 27/7/1728 of Whyte's [White] titles to a list of his family's ownership of Leixlip lands over the years, and to be sold to Conolly. [Box 28,Castletown Papers, IAA].

A List of Arrears due out of Leixlip's Estate to ye Hon Mr Conolly to ..Mitchell, Rent 1731
Includes: Robert Ingham, £9 3s 0d; Thos. Keating for ye Mills and Glin, £28 1s; Papper [sic] Mill & Tenements,
 £41 4s 6d; Salmon Leap Inn, £14.14s; a tenement next to the Salmon Leap Inn, £2 17s [Castletown Papers, Box 25, IAA]. This suggests that the paper mill was functioning until this time. (Note the reference to paper made by Randall at a Newbridge, Parsonstown, premises in 1739.)

1731:  On 3/11/1731 Parliament agreed to give £2000 per annum for two years to the Trustees of the Linen Manufacture to encourage the raising of sufficient quantities of hemp and flax in the Kingdom. [HoCJ, Vol 4, p??, this date.]

Note that the linen industry was carried out at Palmerstown, Co Dublin. [Nessa O’Connor, Palmerstown – An Ancient Place, Dublin, 2003, p47+.] A rettory or flax steep was used to soak flax bundles in readiness for scutching.  O’Connor describes the arrangement at Palmerstown. A similar trough, later used as a swimming pool, existed near the Ryevale mills on Distillery Lane, Leixlip.

1731:  Parliament decided to apply duties on tea, coffee, chocolate, and cocoa nuts for the use and encouragement of Hempen and Flaxen Manufactures of the Kingdom [HoCJ, Vol. 4, 8/11/1731.]

1731:  On the 26/11/1731 the House appointed a committee to enquire into combinations and frauds of several brewers, malsters and others in respect of the buying and measuring of corn. Some days later, -  on 4/12/1731 -  they took Daniel Donovan, Brewer, into custody for grossly prevaricating in his examination. [HoCJ, Vol. 4, p??, this date.]

1731:  An Act for repairing the Road leading from the City of Dublin to the Town of Kinegad in the County of West-Meath was passed in 1731 by the Irish Parliament, empowering the named trustees to erect turnpikes, receive and take tolls, in the manner specified, etc., the tolls to be collected for a period of 21 years from the 25th March 1732. The Act is to hand and is available in hard-copy at TCD library.

1731:  Horse racing, including a race by girls, took place on Leixlip’s new race course on 18th & 19th October, 1731. There was also a leaping match for men, and prizes for all. The race was under the administration of Christopher Roe. [Falkner’s Dublin Journal From Saturday October 9th to Tuesday October 12th, 1731.]

1732:  On 28/4/1732, fifteen of the trustees appointed by Parliament to operate an Act for repairing the road leading from the city of Dublin to the town of Kinnegad  - including Henry Sandford, George Caulfield and William Beckett -  assigned and made over to Hugh Henry and James Swift, of Dublin, the levying, collecting and holding the tolls for a consideration mentioned in the deed, from the previous 25th March, for a period of 31 years subject to a proviso for making it void on payment on the first anniversary of a sum of £4,000 plus interest at 6% to Henry and Swift. [Registry of Deeds Memo No 69-259-46201] Henry gave his name to Henry Street, Dublin 1. He was an MP for the boro' of Randalstown, Co. Antrim, in 1744 [Watson's Almanack] A Hugh Henry & Co., were bankers, at Upper Ormond Quay, Dublin and George Caulfeild was Counsel to the Revenue Commissioners, with office at the Custom House, Dublin, in 1738 [Directory of Dublin 1738]

1732:  Wednesday, 28th June, 1732, John Loveday, of Cavesham, in Oxfordshire, travelled on horseback from Celbridge (Castletown House, where he stopped) to Newbridge (=Parsonstown/Barnhall) and thence to Lucan and Palmerstown. The road from Newbridge to Leixlip (= Barnhall/ Celbridge Rd) had not been constructed and most likely neither had Leixlip bridge, so he would have travelled on the south side of the Liffey to the Salmon leap Inn. [Thos. U. Sadleir, JKAS, Vol VII, No.3, 1913, p177.]

1732:  Thos Pearson and Thos Trotter, agents of Wm Connolly (Jnr), in a deed dated 30/6/1732 (but registered with the Registry of Deeds on 7/3/1732, No 73-156-50292), demised unto John and Daniel Molyneux and John Twigg, all of Dublin City, Iron mongers, all that part of Leixlip town commonly called the Tuck Mill or Paper Holding, containing in front to the street 196 feet, in depth, 400 feet, the mill stream and little island, including and in the rear the millstream to the new road at the foot of the new bridge that is to be built over the Liffey at the said town of Leixlip and likewise the two islands lying eastwards of the corn mills and thirty feet depth, the length of Keating's garden lying northwards of the said mill to make a pond, the whole containing one acre one rood and eleven perches [plantation measure] as by a map annexed to said lease may more fully appear with houses, buildings, mills, mill streams, rights members and appurtenances thereunto belonging and as the same are in the occupation of the said John & Daniel Molyneux and John Twigg....  during the natural lives of them, the survivors and renewable for ever, at a rent of £32 per annum, plus an additional £10 if the premises are assigned or made over during the said lease. Witnessed by Wm Molyneux, ironmonger, and John Coates, both of Dublin.  Some signatures are available on the memorial, but not of great quality.
A copy of the map is available. This shows the line of the new bridge, over the pair of mill streams, the 30ft passage to the bridge; the upper mill stream having a widened 'box' section in the middle of the southern boundary of the paper mill field  - suggesting this was used either as a washing station for the tuck or paper or as a location for a mill wheel [Box 27, Castletown Papers, IAA]. There is a reference to this property in the Leases Book on the Castletown Estate [Box 59, Castletown Papers, IAA, No 12, at or after 1751], where the tenants heirs, assigns or successors are then Wm Molyneux and Wm Constable and the "Tuck Mill or Papper [sic] Holding [is] now the Iron Mills" and the right of the tenants "to have 30 feet of passage from the Great Bridge along by the little stream to their Park.."  A John Twigge [sic] was a member of the Common Council of Dublin City in 1735 (and perhaps earlier) and 1741 [Watson's Almanack] and there in his capacity as a member of the Trinity Guild; he lived at Bridge St; he was Sheriff in 1736.

A John Twigg was a clergyman who lived in Palmerstown in 1701.[TCD alumni details for his son, Paul].  John was in charge of the vicarage of Chapelizod from about 1703, with his son, Paul, as his curate.  [Nessa O’Connor, Palmerstown – An Ancient Place, Dublin, 2003, p35.]  In 1713, James Twigge leased the plating mill and shop at Palmerstown to two (unnamed) ironmongers and rights over the mill waters. [O’Connor, opus cit, p46.]
 A Daniel Molyneux, SC, was born in Dublin the son of Thomas Molyneux, a doctor of medicine and entered TCD as a student on July 9th, 1723, aged 15 years. He was awarded a BA in 1727 and MA in 1730 and was Fellow of the Royal Society; he had a younger brother, William, also schooled at Trinity. [TCD Alumni]. Dr Thomas Molyneux lived at New-Row, Smithfield, adjoining a couple of large, 3-storey, malt houses, in the parish of St Paul, in1710 [Newspaper report in the Dublin Gazette of 21/10/1710 advertising their sale].

An alternative scenario is possible, and perhaps more likely? A Danniel Mullenax (one of 9 different spellings of the name), son of William Mullenax, smith, and Rebekah, his wife, was baptised in the C of I parish of St. Michan's, Oxmanstown (extending from Dublin bay to the Phoenix Park north of the river and north to little Cabra) on 23 July, 1682 [Henry Berry (ed), Registers of St. Michan's, 1636-1700]
On or about 25 January, 1690, a John Mullenax was born to John & Alice? Mullenax in the same parish .The latter couple had a child every two years over a decade; all of those noted - except John - died within five years. William Mullenax's children had similar mortality rates; there is no record of Danniel dying in the parish of St Michan's up to 1700. It is noteworthy that the Marsden (aka Marstin) family were also living in the St Michin's parish during the same period; a Molyneux Marsden was later to become involved with Leixlip iron works.. Thomas Marsden was listed as living in Church St in the Directory of Dublin, 1738.

Indenture made 28/3/1732 between Thos Keating of Leixlip, miller, of the one part and John & Daniell Molyneux, Ironmongers of the other part.  For £4 Keating leased to the Molyneux part of mills etc. of Leixlip up to Costiloe's work or gate. The Molyneux were required to repair and amend the weirs and make two sluice gates up to Costiloe's [=Costelloe] works. Reference to location of old tuck mills. Provision for priority use of water to Keating for his corn mills over the iron mills for 80 days every summer, alternatively a £5 fee per day to Keating, with provision for arbitration in the event of dispute. The Molyneux were allowed to enlarge the pond near their works for that purpose alone, "and also access [etc.] through the island which lies westwards to the back of the said corn mills to the old tuck mills and all..  rights and appurtenances thereto belonging or in any pertaining in as large and ample manner as he the said Thos Keating now holds". [Box 27, Castletown Papers, IAA].

St. Mary's graveyard headstone belonging to Geo. Beere and his posterity records the burial of the body of John Molyneaux, d 7/3/1736, with two of his grandchildren William and Susan Beere...1750; confirmed by the Church's burial records  - he is 'Mulligneaux'. A John Molyneux, Dublin, gentleman, died with will in 1753. [26th Report of the Deputy Keeper of Public Records in Ireland] A Daniel Molyeaux of Dublin and an Elizabeth M. are buried in St Mary's graveyard; Daniel died 16th March, year and age indecipherable now. Daniel Molineux and David Molineux were merchants at Essex St, and a John Mullyneux occupied premises in King St in 1738  - Directory of Dublin, 1738

1733:  An advertisement in Faulkner’s Dublin Journal, 8th to 11th September, 1733, notified the public of a three-day horseracing event for purses of £5, £10, a pair of silver spurs, with a sweepstake, on the course of Leixlip, during the days, 24th to 26th September. Only inhabitants of the town could erect a tent or booth on the or about the race place. Horses were to be entered with Mr Christopher Roe in the town and the rules for the event laid out.

1733: William Conolly Jnr married Lady Anne Wentworth on 2 March 1733 or 1734 and came from London to Ireland in August 1733. After inspecting his estates they lived in Leixlip castle. In 1734 he was elected to the British Parliament. They had a son, also William, baptised on 5/12/1734 at St Mary's; his name may have been changed later to Thomas? He moved to London for 1744 to 1748, returning to Leixlip at intervals.  After Katherine Conolly died they moved into Castletown (1752).

1733: Watson's Almanack listed the stops and fares charged for travelling by (Ringsend) carr, chair or chaise from Dublin to the suburbs. These included the following: Chapelizod, 6d; Palmerstown, 9d; Curtis Stream, 1s; Luttrelstown, 1s; Lucan, 1s 4d; St Catherine's, 1s 9d; Leixlip, 2s 2d; Newbridge (Leixlip), 2s 2d. These set-downs and prices remained stable for many years. The prices remained unchanged until 1764, when they were increased, Leixlip then costing 2s 8d, and Newbridge was no longer listed as a destination.

1734:  James Glascock (the 1st of them) was recorded, King's inns papers, as a solicitor in practice at Chancery, c1734. He might be the brother of Christopher Glascock but probably was his nephew, one of the 7 sons of Francis, Christopher's brother; he was followed by another Jas. Glascock, of Music Hall, Leixlip.

1734:  Faulkner’s Dublin Journal of 16th to 20th April, 1734, reported the winners of horse races held on the course of Leixlip on Monday 15th and Tuesday 16th April as follows: the Rt. Hon. The Lord Trimlestown’s horse won the five pound plate;  --------- Fitzgerald, Esq, won the £10 plate.  A race comprising 7 footmen for 20 guineas, was won be Squire Cunningham’s footman; also Col. Cary’s footman and  Squire Callaghan’s footman came in third.

1735:  An advertisement in Faulkner’s Dublin Journal, 26th to 30th March, 1734, [thus 1735 in modern calendar] notified the public of a three-day horseracing event for purses of £5, £10, with a sweepstake, on the course of Leixlip, during the days, 15th to 16th April.  Horses were to be entered with Mr John Branwood in the town and the rules for the events laid out. Only inhabitants of the town could erect a tent or booth on the or about the race place. There was to be cock-fighting each morning.

1736:  “The Inn commonly known as the King’s Head in Leixlip, being a large commodious well built House, with convenient Stabling, Am exceeding good Kitchen Garden with all sorts of Roots and Sallating, as also a large well Planted Orchard and Garden mareing [sic] on the river Liffey and navigable from a Boat up to the Salmon Leap, are to be let from the first Day of May next or sooner if required, and will give great encouragement to a good Tenant. 
N.B. Any Person who takes the said Inn and Garden may be supplied with any Number of Acres for Graising or meadowing Land they please. Enquire of Mr. Richard Shulen [Shuldon?] on Usher’s Quay, or of Mr Richard Eustace at the Wool-pack in High-street.”   - Advert. in Pue’s Occurrences, from Tuesday, March 23rd to Saturday March 27th, 1735-6 [Info from Thomas Byrne]

1736: Entry No.2 in a Castletown Lease Book (of or after 1751) cites a 31 years' lease dated 16/4/1736 to Peter Gaynor of the Salmon Leap Inn.  The book notes that the Gazebo next to the Swords tenement is not included, but he holds it at will for £1.10 rent. [Castletown Papers, box 59, IAA]. Note the turret, which could have served as a gazebo or watch tower, attached to the wall of a stone bridge, illustrated in (Austin) Cooper's Ireland, drawings compiled by Peter Harbison. Perhaps there was such a turret on Leixlip bridge, and Swords was a tenant of the Toll/Bridge House then? No, see entry for 1741.

The Swords is Thomas Swords, who had a daughter, Mary, baptised 29/3 1710 or 11 at St Mary's. The premises may also be those later occupied by the Tankard couple, near the Rye Bridge, south side of Leixlip Main Street. Edward Tankard had a memorial erected on his father, Simon's grave, died 9/9/1736, at St Mary's graveyard.

The lands on which Leixlip House now stands were once called Gazebo Park and leased to a Captain Brady, and later to Wm George Downing Nesbitt [Registry of Deeds Memo No 1855-9-247.] by Lieut. Col. Jas Smith Lawe, of Cheltenham, and in which deed is recited an earlier one with Brady in which the lands are said to be bounded on the east by what is now Captain's Hill; on the west by the river Rye; on the north by Thos. Harpur's holding by a wall and mearing to the Bleach yard; and on the south by gardens and house formerly held by widow Gaynor and other town tenements .The Brady and Nesbitt families share a burial plot at St Mary's graveyard, the first internment listed being that of Maria Anne Brady who d. about 1772 aged 17 years and continuing to 1828, when John Nesbitt was buried. It includes that of General William Brady, d.28/5/1800.

1737:  Robert Ingham was a witness to St Mary’s, Leixlip, Vestry Minutes of 13/6/1737.

1738:  John White is described  - Directory of Dublin, 1738 -  as a land Agent, at Arbour Hill.

1739:  A new Act was passed to enable new roads to be built from market town to market town, eg, Celbridge to Leixlip. The legislation was abused by grand jurymen and their friends in order to secure road contracts, deemed more profitable than farming. [David Broderick, The First Toll-Roads, Cork, 2002, p74-6].

1739:  John Cane, curate of Leixlip, 1738/39, married Grace Proby of Leixlip, on 28/7/1739. Ms Proby probably lived in Marshfield at the time. As can be seen from 1747, a Mrs Grace Proby was allocated a prime seat in the chancel by the vicar, perhaps there were two Graces, mother and daughter?  Grace Williams, daughter of Deborah Williams (sister of Bishop Narcissus Marsh), who was married to Archdeacon Williams of Cashel, married Charles Probey. [Muriel McCarthy, Marsh's Library]

1739:  While we have no knowledge of who was making paper at the Paper Holding or Tuck Mill, Mill Lane, Leixlip, in 1732 or thereabouts, we have a record of a Mr Randal or Randall as a manufacturer of paper at Newbridge, near Leixlip, in this year, for a pamphlet printed in Dame Street, Dublin. [Pamphlet is in the Bradshaw Irish Collection, (a bequest of a large library) in Cambridge University Library.] As an Oliver Wilson became tenant of the Toll/Bridge House, c1748, and as several persons of the name Wilson were then book-sellers and printers in Dublin, it is possible that the paper mill at Mill Lane was in his family.

1739:  Heads of a Bill of an Act entitled "An Act for the publick registering of all Deeds, Conveyances and Will made since the 25th Day of March, 1708 that have been or that shall be made of any Honours, Manors, Lands, Tenements or Hereditaments" was read and committed to a Committee of the House on 8/12/1739. [HoCJ, this date, Vol. 6?, p316.]

1739:  Carton House redesigned by Richard Cassels, this year. He also designed Leinster House and the Rotunda Hospital. [Adrian MacLoughlin, Historic Dublin, Dublin, 1979, p8.]

1739-40: Con Costello, Kildare Saints, Soldiers & Horses, Naas, 1991, p35: Reference to the parson-poet, Samuel Shepherd, vicar of Celbridge, d1785.  His mother was a Burgh, of Oldtown, Naas. His verse called ‘Leixlip’ referred to the severe winter of 1739/40 [?] Shepherd’s papers are in TCD library.

1740:  “In Mr. James Ussher’s Garden at Leixlip there is this Season brought to Perfection a Chili Strawberry, under the Management of John Charters, Gardener, which is four Inches round.  The late Dr. Marmaduke Coghill first imported these Plants, but we are told they were not brought to Perfection till this Year.”  [Dublin Newsletter, from 9th to 12th August, 1740.]

1740:  William Connolly [sic], Esq., of Dublin, demised, in a deed dated 25/8/1740, the Shingled House and park in the town of Leixlip to John Barton, Brewer, for three lives, at a rent of £10 Stg per annum. The deed was witnessed by Conolly's agent, Phillip Wakefield, and Oswald John Buckle of Leixlip; Wakefield and Wm Hall witnessed the memorial. [Registry of Deeds Memo No 168-482-113888.] The property was bounded on the east "by the Great road to the Bridge", confirming that Leixlip bridge had then been constructed. Nevertheless, the memorial of the deed was not delivered (by Barton) to the Asst Registrar of Deeds, Mr James Saunders, until 27/7/1754. Wm Conolly leased Levy's holding (Main St. Leixlip, 2r 20p), to Barton by deed of 30/8/1744; also registered in 1754, on 12th January. [Registry of Deeds Memo No 166-198-111223.]

A John Barton, of Lucan, had a daughter, Ann, baptised on 14/2/1719 followed by a son, also called John, baptised on 14/9/1721. Ann(e) later married Charles Fellows and had a son John Fellows, baptised 16/10/1737 in Lucan, when she was about 18 years old. It is not clear whether the John of the 1740 lease is John Barton the younger or the older. Charles Fellows is mentioned in various leases relating to a field he had near the Black Castle. 

John Barton may be related to Hugh Barton of Straffan House and his grandfather, Thomas Barton, wine maker, France. See 'Kildare, saints, soldiers and horses', Con Costello, Naas, 1991, reviewed, JKAS, p106/7, Vol XVIII, Part I, 1992-3. John Barton, snr, may have lived at Somerton, Lucan, home of the late Liam Lawlor, TD. 

Con Costello, Kildare Saints, Soldiers & Horses, Naas, 1991, p111-2: mentions Hugh Barton (1766-1854), of Straffan, grandson of Thomas Barton, who had established himself in the wine business in Bordeaux in 1725.  See Renagh Holohan, The Irish Chateaux, 1989. [?] See Turtle Bunbury and Art Kavanagh, The Landed Gentry & Aristocracy of County Kildare, Dublin, 2004, ‘Barton of Straffan House’, p13-25, for the early history of the Barton family in Ireland.

1741:  Watson's Almanack lists Nathaniel Clements, Esq as Cashier or Teller of the Exchequer. He was additionally chief park ranger of the Phoenix Park and had a relatively small three-bay house built for him in the Park in 1751. In 1782, after it had been bought by the English government as a residence for the lord lieutenant or viceroy, it was extended. [Adrian MacLoughlin, Historic Dublin, 1979, p131.] Also in Watson for1744. Clements, along with Rev. John Jebb, was a member of the Dublin Society (in 1740) for the improvement of husbandry, and other useful arts. Daniel Molineux of Essex St. (listed there in 1738 Directory of Dublin) was a member of the Common Council of Dublin City, 1740. John Molyneaux of King St was the collector for the City of Dublin Work House in the Oxmanstown, St Michan's, St Pauls, Christ Church and Liberty areas.

1741:  An Appendix to the House of Commons Journal of the time reports that Mary Cologan was transported in Michaelmas 1741, most likely to Maryland; no reason was given [HoCJ, Vol.4, p.??]. From Co. Kildare were deported two persons with Leixlip-locality names, Edward Roe, described as a Vagabond, on 9/3/1740 and James Neal, Grand Larceny, on 14/3/1742.

1741:  James McManus, of Maynooth, was made High Sheriff of Co. Kildare in 1741 and Sovereign of Kildare in 1752. He was born c1700 of his namesake, merchant, of Maynooth. He was an MP and barrister. [T U Sadleir, JKAS, Vol VII, No. 3, 1913, p167.]

1741:  “On Wednesday last the Honourable Mrs. Conolly gave a most splendid Entertainment to a great Number of Persons of Quality of both Sexes, at the new Gazebo at Leixlip, belonging to Mr. Peter Gayner: The Prospects from thence were very much admired by the Company, as was also the elegant Manner in which the Table was laid by said Mr. Gayner upon that Occasion.”  -  News item in Faulkner’s Dublin Journal, From Tuesday September 22nd to Saturday, Sept. 26th, 1741 [Info supplied by Thomas Byrne].

c1741:  The Rt Hon Wm Conolly, MP, nephew of the Speaker, then living at Leixlip Castle,  distributed £20 worth of meal in Leixlip and ordered his steward to attend to the wants of the people there during the frost. [John O’Rourke (PP, Leixlip & Maynooth), The History of the Great Irish Famine, 3rd edition, Dublin, 1902.]

1742:  Another reference to the completion of Leixlip's Liffey bridge is contained in the Registry of Deeds Memorial no 760-247-516182, in the context of a lease dated 29/11/1742, the property is described, inter alia, as : "..to the new road at the foot of the new Bridge that is built over the Liffey at the town of Leixlip".

1742:  "At a Vestry duly called by the Rev. John Kyan on Sunday August 29 1742 and held this day it was unanimously agreed by the Minister, Church Wardens and Parishioners the poor of the parish “be badged with the name of their respective parish on their right shoulders and it is further agreed that notice be given by the Church Wardens and sidesmen to the poor of the said Parish to appear on Tuesday the 14th of this September at eleven o'clock in the forenoon in the Church of Leixlip”; signatures included Mark Cannon, Wm. Conolly, Richard Williams, John Barton, Peter Gaynor, Charles Fellows and John Caldwell.  

The purpose of the badging was to license them to beg in their respective parishes.  An Act to enable the same was passed during the 11&12 Geo. 3, c.20, i.e. during 1771/2, and a further and new Act to explain and amend this Act was passed in 21 & 22 Geo.3, i.e, 1783/4, c.45, page 345-7, Vol.12, Irish Statutes]

1742:  Watson’s Almanack reports Hugh Henry Esq, representing the borough of Randalstown, Co Antrim and Wm Conolly the boro' of Ballyshannon, Co Donegal, in the House of Commons.  The members of the Privy Council in Dublin include Dr Arthur Price, Bishop of Meath and Rt Hon Richard Lambart, Earl of Cavan. Robert Sanford represented the boro' of Newcastle.

1743:  The Wonderful Barn, at Barnhall townland  - formerly Rinawade townland  - was commissioned this year, having taken two years to construct at the behest of Katherine Conolly, widow of William Conolly, of Castletown and Speaker of the Irish House of Parliament. Following the most severe winters of 1739 to 1744, Mrs Conolly began a series of projects to provide work for the poor. The builder was John Glin. The Barn was modelled on another smaller one also of conical construction, which had been completed in 1741 on the Conolly's lands at Rathfarnham, Co. Dublin. The tower is 22.25 metres (73ft) high and flanked by dove-cotes of similar design but smaller in scale. [More details in Leixlip's Wonderful Barn, pub. by LTC]  Note that there is an alternative view of the Rathfarnham barn: in the winter of 1741-42 Major Hall, owner of Whitehall, (a house) built the 'ink bottle' or bottle tower on his lands, employing local men, to provide him with a barn and employment to the poor, then in great distress. It is said that Hall probably copied the Wonderful Barn. [Adrian MacLoughlin, Guide to Historic Dublin, Dublin 1979, p212] However, it is apparent that widow Katherine Conolly did the copying or used the same architect.

It appears that John Glin, or Glyn, aka Glynn, had a son or brother, Joseph, who was also a builder. A Joseph Glyn, of Mary St, Dublin, builder, died on 23/5/1791, aged 62 (therefore born c1729) and was buried in Palmerstown, Co Dublin, graveyard. His daughter, Mrs Honoria Walsh, who died 23/5/1801 aged 23, is interred in the same grave. [Nessa O’Connor, Palmerstown – An Ancient Place, Dublin, 2003, p122.]

1744:  The Leases Book for Castletown Estates (Castletown Papers, Box 59, No.23, IAA) states that: "A house next the Watchhouse", to Thos. Swords; no area was specified. The lease from Wm Conolly to Thos Swords was dated 25/3/1744 and for 31 years. The Watchhouse may have been a tower alongside the graveyard attached to St Mary's, placed there to allow persons to watch over graves to prevent the theft of corpses for 'medical research'. Alternatively, it was a kind of police barracks where night watchmen (policemen) detailed unruly persons overnight as authorised by the HoC. Or the 'watchhouse' may be a reference to the gazebo, on Gazebo Park (where Leixlip House stands).  Or a turret on the south side of the old partially demolished bridge over the Liffey at the Salmon Leap?  Or another name for Knockmulrooney Tower?

For more on watchmen, see Brendan Twomey, Smithfield and the parish of St Paul, Dublin, 1698-1750, Dublin, 2005, p31-6. An Act of 1721 obliged parish vestries in Dublin to organise a parish watch; it was replaced in 1786 [Brendan Twomey, Smithfield and the parish of St Paul, Dublin, 1698-1750, Dublin, 2005.]

1744: Watson's Almanack lists Rt Hon Henry Singleton Esq, Jervis St, as the Lord Chief Justice at the Court of Common Pleas (where Francis Glascock, in 1722, had to account to him for his correspondence to Wogan in Paris).

1744:  Watson's reports the Kinnegad Stagecoach: takes in passengers at Henry Hall's grocers in Smithfield.  Sets out in winter at 8am on Wed. and Sat., returns on Mon. and Fri.  Rate: 5s 5d.

1744:  Arnold Horner, 'Land Transactions and the Making of Carton Demesne', JKAS, Vol XV, No 4, 1974-5, p387-396, notes the existence of Baylie and Mooney's map of Carton, 1744. This article refers to a William Mannwaring Snr leasing lands in Maynooth in 1717.  One of the Barbour sisters at Bridge/Toll House married, c.1915, a Mainwaring; could be same name.  Also mentioned a transfer of lands in July, 1744 to Robert Downes (Dowans or Dowan?). Downes is said to be some sort of agent to the Earl of Kildare. In 1748 Downes got Kellystown. Note Dowan as tenant of Mill Lane [?] property c1720.

There was a toll house on the Naas Road near the Athgoe exit on to it. It was a single storey structure, quite like another toll house on the Belfast-Down turnpike road. It was opposite the Blackchurch Inn. A picture is in [Hone, Craig & Fewer, The New Neighbourhood of Dublin, Dublin, 2002, p123.]

1745: In a will dated 17 June 1745, Francis Glascock, Kilbride, Co Kildare, willed his property to his son, James (Senior). [Registry of Deeds Memo No 117-546 -81896.]  Kilbride may be near Celbridge, according to OS, or to Cloncurry.

1745:  A map of Newtown, Leixlip, of this year is in the PRO, Dublin, ref. M2844. It was made for Thos Conolly.

1746:  William Ingham II, born in 1722, married Margrat Brown, on 23/8/1746, according to St Mary's marriage records.

1747:  Rev Samuel Shepherd, rector of Kildrought [Celbridge], published a poem entitled “Leixlip” in which he describes, in detail, the scenery of the district. [Thos U Sadleir, ‘Some Notes on Leixlip’, p269-71, JKAS, Vol X, 1922-1928.] Shepherd’s works are in TCD library.

1747:  The Dublin to Kinnegad stage coach costs 6s 6d; it has now been extended to Mullingar, cost 8s 1d. [Watson's Gentleman's and Citizens' Almanack for 1747.]

1747:  Robert Ingham, and his father, William Ingham [linen printer], were evicted some time before a 21-year lease, dated 29/9/1747, was granted by Wm Conolly to Oliver Wilson, for their non-payment of their rent on the Tenter's park and Furryhill park at Leixlip. However, Wilson was expelled from the property by a Roger Coleman, using swords and clubs, by force of arms, on the 1st October following Wilson's occupation of the premises. In a judgement of the King's Court at Dublin, and dated 24/11/1748, the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, John Bowes, ordered the sheriff, Thos. Walsh, to secure the property for Wilson. Wilson was awarded £100 damages for his loss and other injuries against Coleman. The writ was also signed by Nixon and Glascock (no first names). The sheriff ordered Hugh Mc Manus to execute the Court order on 3/12/1748, which was so done on the 6th of that month. However, by June 1949, the property was again leased by Wm Conolly; evidently, Wilson didn't stay. [Castletown Papers, box 39, IAA] A David Nixon was Clerk of the Pleas, Court of the Exchequer, Michael's lane, and Ormond quay, Dublin in 1738 - Directory of Dublin, 1738. The Nixon family lived at Ravensdale, Leixlip.

Tenter was the frame on which cloth was stretched with tenter hooks (extensorium). About 1483, King Richard III made a law (c.8,) declaring that tenters must be set in open places, not houses .In Kendal: Ricmondshire Wills, there is a reference to 'Item, tenture posts and woodde, 6 d., 2 tentures, 20s.', 1562. Cited in Bardsley, Dictionary of English and Welsh Surnames,1901, London.

The Registry of Deeds records a Joshua Wilson, who died in 1701, owning the Great or Large corn Mill and 14 acres, the church Field, and tenement and garden in Palmerstown village. [Nessa O’Connor, Palmerstown – An Ancient Place, Dublin, 2003, p42.]  A Conolly deed refers to John Wilson, Jas. Wilson and Henry Wilson, (all sons of a Henry Wilson?), with an address at Luglass, Co. Wicklow. [Box 36, Castletown Papers, IAA]

1747:  At a Vestry meeting on 1/5/1747 Rev. John Kyan, Rector of Leixlip, gave seats in the chancel as follows:  No. 1 to his own family and successors, and to be filled up by any Hillsborough scholars for whom there was not room in the pews assigned them in the church; No.2 to Major Michael Studholme; No. 3 to Rev. Dr. Thom [Shem?] Thompson and No.4 to Mrs. Grace Proby. [Reproduced by Suzanne Pegley (Ed), Register of the Parish of Leixlip, Co Kildare: 1665-1778, Dublin, 2001, p47-8.] Hillsborough is a townland 5km south east of Newbridge, Co Kildare, in the parish of Great Connell, once owned by Sir Nicholas White of Leixlip, c1640. [Valerie J Keeley, ‘Excavation of Hillsborough Townland’, JKAS, Vol XVII, 1987-91.] There was also a Hillsborough near Lucan. Pews were sold, the best places being reserved for those who paid the most.

c..1748:  Edward Francis French is the trustee of the will of the deceased Goodshaw, of Leixlip, in a lease to Edward Conolly. [Castletown Papers, box 27, IAA]. Is this the Thomas Goodshaw, who married Margery Browne, c 1737 by licence? [Addenda, 26th Report of the Deputy Keeper of Public Records in Ireland] 

1748:  On 12/2/1748 Christopher Glascock is the plaintiff in an action in Belfast Court to recover lands in Co. Armagh. The lands - of 100 messuages, 100 cottages, 100 orchards, 100 gardens, 2 pigeon houses, 5 mills, 500 acres of arable land, 500 acres of pasture, 100 acres of wood and underwood, 100 acres of moor and bog and 100 acres of furze and heath, commons of pasture, mines, minerals, quarries, waters, water courses with the appurtenances -  were in the Markethill area, Co Armagh, and the case, which is recorded, exemplifies the recovery of lands. Glascock claimed them as his inheritance. The defendant was Campbell Craig and Arthur Graham was vouchee. The Sheriff of Co Armagh was ordered to give effect to the recovery of the property to Glascock. The original papers are in PRONI, ref. D.951. [Deputy Keeper's Report for1954-59 (Jan. 1996), HMSO].

1749:  ROE  -  This monument was erected here by Laurence Roe April 1749. Here lyeth the body of Peter Roe father to the above Laurence Roe who died April 1714 aged 50 years (56).  From Ladychapel, nr Maynooth,churchyard; extracted by Martin J Kelly.

1749: Rt. Hon Wm Conolly MP to Christopher Glascock, Dublin, Gent: dated 10/6/1749. Conolly demised unto Glascock, for three lives, and to be perpetually renewed subject to conditions, the Tenther [sic] Park, the Furry Hill formerly in the possession of Robert Ingham and also the Island next adjoining the said orchard between the same and the River Liffey which was formerly in the possession of the said William Conolly and are part and parcel of  the manor of Leixlip.. subject to a  yearly rent of £11 18s 4d Sterling, plus 12d in the £ receiver's fees. This land included the site of the Toll or Bridge House, located on the said Island. This lease is unregistered at the Registry of Deeds, but it is, complete with annexes, in the Castletown Papers, Box 39, IAA. Glascock was required to build a house of stone or brick and lime, with slated roof, to the value of £60 Sterling within five years of the agreement, in which case he would get rent remission of £16. In a memorandum on the back of the lease, Thomas Starrat, Conolly's Leixlip attorney, noted that he had given the premises to Chris. Glascock on 2nd February, 1749.

Note that there are no baptisms, marriages or deaths in the name Starrat in St Mary's records, suggesting that Starrat, if he had a residence in Leixlip, it was only a summer one.

Christopher Glascock is described as being of Co. Antrim and Middlesex (London). He died in 1758 according to the King's Inns Admission Papers, which describe him as an attorney, King's Bench. The Tenter Park lease passed to a James Glascock of Dublin City (York St.? and of the Musick Hall, Leixlip?). James was the son of Francis Glascock, of Kilbride, Co. Kildare and earlier of Music Hall, Leixlip. Christopher was the brother of a Francis Glascock, solicitor, who, in a Court examination of 29/7/1722, was said to live at Arran Quay, in Dublin. [PRONI. 546: State Papers, Ireland, Bundle 380.] 

I have searched "London - a Complete Guide 1749" by J. Osborn, London; also the 1752 edition; also "Kent's London Directory, 1754", London; "London - a Complete guide 1758" and "The Universal Pocket Companion, 1760", London, and found no mention of any Glascock in them. References are to hand for eight wills of Glascocks in Britain (mainly Essex) during the 18th century; none refer to a Christopher's.

In a Castletown Estates Leases Book [Castletown Papers, Box 59, No.13], is noted: " Ingham's holding to Chris. Glascock; 7a 1r 16p at £12 10s rent for 3 lives from 10/6/1749 by Wm Conolly to Chris Glascock, renewable forever. He must build [only] of lime and stone and slate..." An addendum note states that the Black Castle was added: 'a lease of 3 lives renewable made at the same time and the same clauses pays £1 13s on renewal’. In other records, the area is described as "Ingham's holding and the Tenther Park".

About this time Conolly also leased to Glascock the 'Island Farm'. This is shown on a map of parts of the lands of Collinstown, Co. Kildare, the estate of the Rt. Hon Thos Conolly, of area 231a 1r 6p Plantation Measure, surveyed in 1775 by Pat Roe. Jas Glascock's land is on the east side of the current Intel land. Along the Turnpike road is shown what might be representational of toll-gates; 2 houses are also shown on this road [Castletown Papers, Boxes 84 to 86, IAA].



A Chronology of Leixlip 1731 - 1749 AD compiled by John Colgan. Our thanks to John.

June 12, 2007

ATHY - Asbestos Factory - Official Opening 1937

Leinster Leader 05/06/1937





Athy was en fete on Monday when one of the most important of the new Irish manufactories-Asbestos-Cement, was officially opened by Mr. Sean Lemass, Minister for Industry and Commerce.
On his arrival in the town Mr. Lemass was presented with an address of welcome by the members of the Urban District Council, a guard of honour of Civic Guards under Superintendent Bergin, being drawn up at the entrance to the Town Hall.  On arrival at the factory the Minister passed between lines of workmen on his way and was welcomed by the Chairman and members of the board of directors, and, after being shown through the premises he formally started the machinery, and was presented by Mr. Osterberg with a solid silver paper weight bearing the monogram of the firm.  The premises were blessed by the Very Rev. P. Canon McDonnell, P.P., Athy.
The Asbestos Cement Factory is one of the most important of our Irish industries, its establishment a vital step towards the fulfilment of the country’s programme of industrialism.
Situated by the side of the Grand Canal, and convenient to road and rail, the Athy factory occupies an area of 50,000 square feet. It is built on a 12-acre field and constructed with a view to extension as and when the demand grows.  It is roofed with asbestos cement corrugated roofing and the outer walls are covered with asbestos cement sheeting.  The garage is roofed with material manufactured on the premises.
The factory has been producing for about three weeks.  Seventy-five men are employed on three eight-hour shifts.  Construction work is not yet completed.
The factory is at present manufacturing asbestos cement corrugated sheeting and corrugated roofing, asbestos cement slating etc.  Already demands for supplies have been received from all over the country.  One of its first big under-takings is to supply asbestos cement products to the two large Irish Cement Factories under construction at Drogheda and Limerick.
Athy factory will shortly produce rain water goods.  When working at full capacity it is anticipated the factory will employ over 150 people.
The capital of the company will be £100,000.  Already £60,000 has been spent on the factory, and machinery costing over £30,000 installed.
There are five Directors of the Company.  Mr. M. P. Minch, Rockfield House, Athy, is the Chairman, and Mr. H. Osterberg, Managing Director.  The other Directors are: - Mr. F. G. Thompson, Carlow; Mr. M. F. Parkhill, Dublin; and Mr. N. Max. Jensen.  Mr. Jensen is Chairman of Tunnel Cement Co. and Chairman of Irish Cement Ltd.  He is a Director of 14 of the largest companies in Britain and Ireland.  Mr. Osterberg is Managing Director of Irish Cement, Ltd., and Mr. Parkhill is Managing Director of Messrs. Charles Tennant and Co., Dublin.

The selection of Athy as the centre for the asbestos cement factory was due to joint efforts of Mr. M. P. Minch and his brother, Mr. S. B. Minch, T.D. Were it not for them the factory would have been established elsewhere. Many towns in the Free State sought this important industry, and in two centres (one not far from Athy) a free site and an undertaking that the factory would not be charged rates for three years were offered as an inducement. Once again the people of Athy are indebted to the Minch family. The manager of the factory is Mr. W. E. Cornish, a shrewd, energetice Welshman, who is thoroughly familiar with the manufacture of asbestos cement goods. Mr. Cornish was employed by the Tunnel Asbestos Cement prior to his appointment at Athy factory.
The raw asbestos, coming from many parts of the world is disintegrated and the fibres of which it is composed broken up into fluffy pulp. After measuring the pulp is mixed with cement and water, and during the continual stirring kept in a state of suspension until poured in semi-liquid form on an unending band of felt. In due course several layers of the mixture form a thick blanket-like whole. The moisture in this blanket is then sucked out by vacuum, and the blanket itself is pressed into flat sheets, corrugated sheets and slates. These are hardened in special hardening chambers cut to requisite sizes, and then stored ready for marketing.

The Minister’s Congratulations
Mr. Lemass, addressing a crowd of bout 500 people from the factory steps after formally opening the factory, said the formal opening of this concern was not merely a matter of congratulation for its shareholders and directors and those directly employed in it, but for every man and woman of all sections of the people, for everybody will benefit by the promotion of this industry.
Wishing the project every success, Mr. Lemass assured its promoters that anything that can be done by the officers of the Department for Industry and Commerce to foster its growth, to increase the possibility of employment in it, or to help in any way to realise the ambition of those who founded it, will be only too gladly done. “On your behalf, citizens of Athy,” concluded the Minister, “on behalf of the citizens of this country, I wish to congratulate those who planned, financed and made possible this enterprise, and express the hope that you will never have reason to regret the part they took in establishing it, and again I congratulate those responsible for having this factory started in Athy”  (applause).

The Luncheon
At the luncheon, which was given afterwards in the factory, Mr. M. Minch, Chairman of the Company, presided.
Mr. M. Jensen, proposing the toast of Irish Industries, thanked the Minister for opening the factory, which, he said, formed another link in the general industrial policy of the Government. He hoped that the industry would benefit not only those engaged in the concern, but the country as a whole.  Commenting on the necessity to import the raw materials he said he had been told that asbestos had recently been found in Ireland, but they would have to wait until it had been found in large quantities.  It would be only a matter of months until the new cement factories were in operation, and then very little money would be spent outside Ireland in the production of their goods.  That was the real test of an industry from a national viewpoint, for, after all, it was not so much a question of whether an article cost a little more or a little less if all the money spent on its production was spent on labour in the country.  At the present time Ireland was used as a dumping ground for some Continential markets, and goods were sometimes sold here at a price considerably lower than the price obtaining in markets abroad.  That was, of course, a position of instability, because there was nothing to stop foreign manufacturers from getting together and increasing their prices at any time, as, indeed had been done in some industries recently.

Irish Labour.
One difficulty they expected to be up against was the fact that some people thought so little of their own country that they refused to believe that an Irish-made article could be as good as an imported one.  The firm hoped to be able to convince such people that the articles they were producing in the new factory by almost one hundred per cent. Irish labour and mainly by Irish capital, were as good as those which had hitherto to be imported.  The industrial policy of the Government was criticised by people who said it was wrong.  He wondered if such people really thought that Ireland would be a happier country if it remained largely agricultural.  Denmark, of which he was a native, had been exclusively agricultural up to the time it lost a considerable slice of territory during an unfortunate war.  Now it was succeeding with a policy of agriculture side by side with industrial development.  In Denmark they had found it increasingly difficult to get an outside market for their agricultural products owing to the policy of self-sufficiency pursued by other nations.
Replying, Mr. Lemass said-That a remarkable feature of recent developments was the very large amount of money available for industries. That, he said, was an indication not only of the considerable resources at the disposal of the people, but of a new outlook that had grown up among them. Irish industry was no longer promoted as a matter of sentiment, people did not invest their money from patriotic motives and the nation did not want them to do so.

Good Investments
The industry in which money was invested from patriotic motives alone did not       last long. They wanted Irish investors to invest in Irish industrial enterprises because of the prospect of getting a return on their investment, and they wanted those responsible for the conduct of Irish industries to carry them on as business concerns, with the obligation of giving good value to their customers and at the same time securing a return on the money invested to the satisfaction of the shareholders. That was the position to which they now had attained, and in these circumstances the future of industrial development, even though there was a wide field to be covered, could be looked to with every confidence, and progress would be even more rapid than hitherto. That factory, he said, bore the seeds of future expansion for it contributed to much wider plans than those entertained by the directors and shareholders. The Government realised that its success was going to spread itself in many other quarters.

The County Kildare had benefited to no inconsiderable extent from the industrial development which had taken place, and that was largely due to the fact that it had the good fortune to be represented in the Dail by three deputies who, regardless of differences on other matters, worked together to promote anything which would be of benefit to County Kildare. The cordiality and co-operation which existed between them was a very hopeful sign for the future of the county, and they had set a headline which might be followed by other counties.
Very considerable industrial development had been witnessed for some years past, but considerable as it had been it was only part of the work that was possible if all their industrial potentialities were to be used to the fullest extent. The fact that not one-half their industrial programme-commenced a few years ago-had yet been completed, and that existing imports necessitated the establishment of as many industrial concerns as had already been begun, was an indication of the scope there still was for the promotion of employment and the increasing of the resources of the nation so that the Government would have at its disposal the means of fulfilling its social obligations in full.

Easier in Future
In the future industrial development was going to be much easier to accomplish than it had been, because of the great change that had taken place in the outlook of the people in the matter of industrialisation. A short while ago it was difficult to get people to invest their savings in Irish industrial concerns, and there was in the great mass of the people at that time a considerable uneasiness as to the future prospects of Irish industry, a lack of confidence in the ability of the Irish industrialists to make good. All that was changed. Nowadays there was no difficulty in getting any money required to finance a sound industrial proposition. “Our people now have unlimited confidence in Irish industrialists and their ability to make good.”
“If” the Minister said, “Irish industrialists fulfil honourably and honestly their obligations to the Irish people, and particularly to those required by law to purchase their products they will retain the goodwill of the Irish people, which they now enjoy. I am quite certain that, so far as the great majority of them is concerned, they are sincerely and honestly desirous of doing their duty honestly and fairly to the public. Here and there there may be individuals with a desire to get rich quickly and make hay while the sun shines but the number of such people is small, and it will be possible to deal with them by other means, although their presence may do some damage to the reputation of Irish industrialists generally, but I think the average individual, if he is prejudiced at all, is prejudiced in favour of Irish industrialists, and is anxious to judge fairly, having due regard to all the difficulties of the time, and will agree that, on the whole, the industrialists of this country have done a good job in circumstances which necessitated their doing that job quickly and doing it under difficulties which might have intimidated less enterprising persons.”

Quicker Progress
The progress made had been such as to inspire them with the belief that it would continue at an accelerated pace until every industrial possibility had been examined and the resources of the country developed to the fullest extent. It was only on the basis of developing those resources and supplementing their agricultural activities with industrial activities they would be able to put themselves in a position to secure a balanced economy so that they could protect the people against poverty and destitution, secure a higher standard of living, and make possible the restoration of the profits of the farmers, and all other sections of the community (applause).
Mr. F.G. Thompson, Carlow, proposed the toast of “The Guests,” which was responded to by Mr. Manning Robertson who dealt with the products of the factory from an aesthetic point of view, and said that as roofing material they would harmonise perfectly with the Irish landscape. From a practical view they overcame the problem of condensation with which architects and builders were, unfortunately, too familiar.

Irish Materials
Mr. H. T. O’Rourke said that some years ago 93 per cent, of building materials used here was of foreign manufacture. He foresaw the day when one third of that amount would be imported. It was within the power of architects, private and official, to promote the use of Irish materials. Builders and manufacturers should advertise their products more in the Press and by doing so push their goods under the notice of the public.

The Press
Mr. S. B. Minch, T.D., proposing the Toast, “The Press,” said-“I thought the ‘Press Gang’ had ceased to function, even in Great Britain and the Continent 150 years ago. I did not know the Press Gang existed in an inland town like Athy in May of 1937. I would like to propose “The Press” in many ways. One can propose “The Press” as one of the great industries here in the Free State; one could propose “The Press” in its many features; one could propose “The Press” as the great bulwark in our democratic fights; one can propose “The Press” in its enlightenment, its great salesmanship, and in hundreds of ways in which we, in this country, are grateful to them to have a press that relives the drabness of our rural life with its news and many other features. But I would like, if I may say so, in proposing this toast, to remark that I think the times has arrived where our little Irish financial critics might refer a little more to Irish industries, and not all British industries and other financial news. By degrees in the Free State industries have been set up in which the public have a great interest, and I think we can give that little criticism here that the Press should give us financial criticisms or other criticisms which they do in reference to industries outside this country. In proposing “The Press,” I wish to propose it as a great industry which gives tremendous employment, and we welcome the Press here not only in their professional capacity but as full industrialists doing a wonderful amount of good in many ways. We would like, therefore, in proposing the health of the Press, to emphasise the one thing which those of us who meet the Press so often know, namely, the great honour that exists in their profession and in their great industry and also to compliment them on the part they have plated as the Press in helping the industrial revival in our country. They have played a great and important part. There is no industry which can afford to fail to utilise that magnificent access which goes to the consumer of every type of goods and to every class and every creed. The Press, therefore, can be toasted both as a great industry and as a great way, not only of creating industry but by making industry a success by the selling and helping of the salesmanship of their goods.” (applause).
Mr. R.J. Donaghy, Manager, “Leinster Leader,” acknowledging, said the Press appreciated very much the toast in their honour. There was no doubt that the Press represented a very important industry in this country, and every other industry had the deepest sympathy of the publicists. “I feel sure,” continued Mr. Donaghy, “that if the point raised by Capt. Minch in regard to financial quotations is brought to the proper quarter it will receive every consideration. The Press are out to help the people; they are out to give a lead to the people. Representing a paper belonging to the county, may I say I welcome this industry in Athy to-day, and as far as the Press is concerned, we wish it every success.

The Chairman
Mr. W. Mahon, Acting Chairman of Athy Urban District Council, proposing a toast of thanks to the Chairman, Mr. M.P. Minch, said that for generations the Minch family have been associated with the industrial and other phases of the life of Athy and South Kildare. The courtesy and confidence which they won in those years have been retained by the present representatives of the family. When this factory was first mooted in Athy, Athy having been so often disappointed in the past over the establishment of industries, was rather chary about this one, but when the name of Minch was mentioned it was received solemnly and earnestly and that gave it an atmosphere of soundness and stability. He could promise the industry the co-operation and help of the working people of Athy under the guidance of Mr. Minch, and hoped in the near future they would have another factory with the name of Minch at its head and the Minister for Industry and Commerce to come down and open it.
Mr. M. P. Minch, returning thanks, said when the establishment of an asbestos cement factory in Ireland was decided upon Athy was only one of the many pebbles on the beach. He and his brother, Mr. S. B. Minch, T.D., assured those promoting the project that if the factory was started in Athy the workers here would always give a fair day’s work for a fair day’s wages.
Subsequently Mr. M. F. Parkhill praised the work of the contractor, Mr. F. G. Thompson, who, he said found many obstacles in his way on the site, but surmounted them and built a factory of which they were all proud.
Amongst those present were-The Minister for Industry and Commerce: Messrs L. O’Brien, Secretary to the Minister; M. P. Minch, Chairman of the Company; N. Max Jensen, Director; H. A. V. Osterberg, Managing Director; F. G. Thompson, Director; M. F. Parkhill, Director; W. J. Hickey, Cork, Director of Cement, Ltd.; C. M. O’Kelly, Dublin, Director of Cement Ltd.; E. F. Barry, Cork, R. N. Keller, solr., Dublin; J. F. Harris, A.C.A. Secretary, Dublin; J. G. Mc Auley, Sales Manager, Dublin; G. Minch, W. E. Cornish, Works Manager; H. G. Donnelly, solr, Athy; D. Gogarty, M.R:I.A.I, Dublin; B. Olsen, do; Capt. S. B. Minch, T.D.; Dr. J. O’Neill, Athy; Messrs R. J. Donaghy, Manager, “Leinster Leader”; William Mahon, Acting Chairman, Athy U.D.C.; James Lawler, Town Clerk, Athy; Very Rev. Patrick Mc Donnell, P.P. V.F., Athy; Very Rev. P. Gorry, P.P. Monasterevan; Messrs. T. C. Courtney, M.F. Local Government Department; Stephen J. Healy Vice-Chairman, Saorstat Eireann Building.

In anticipation of the newly commissioned inventory of Industrial Heritage of Co. Kildare as part of the ongoing work of the Co. Kildare Heritage Plan we will include some notable 'industrial' references on the EHistory site. The Co. Kildare Archaeological Society, Local History Groups and interested individuals with information on the more unique aspects of the industrial heritage of the County should contact the Local Studies Dept. of the Co. Library or the County Heritage Officer.

While there is a wealth of information on the Canals and more modern industries there were many more minor or transitory industries within the County of which there is little or no information. We would be particularly interested in peculiarly 'LOCAL' industries and any information would be appreciated. Any information supplied can be added to this site under the newly created category 'Industrial Heritage' and full credit will be given to the individuals or groups that suppy information. Thank you.

June 05, 2007

NARRAGHMORE - The Knights of the Plough

Leinster Leader 25 June 1892





A meeting to form a society in the interests of the labourers and working farmers was held at Narraghmore, on Sunday evening last, and was largely attended by farmers and labourers of every shade of political opinion. The meeting originated in a requisition extensively signed being presented to Mr. Benjamin Pelin, Ballindrum, who immediately called the meeting by printed posters. Amongst those present were – Messrs. P Bynre, B Pelin, T Hickey, J Doyle, E Dempsey, Martin Heffernan, T Ryan, J Casey, T Brien, J Dempsey, T. Murphy, N Maher, D Brennan, W Hickey, J McDonald, M Cassidy, P Connor, P Nolan, P Morrin, M Travers, J Rooney, P Kenny, J Halleron, E Doyle, P Nolan, M Hickey, P Wall, D Nolan, T Lawlor, P Halleron, T Moore, P Kelly, P Mahe;r, M McDonald, N Murphy, H Mulhall, P Behan, P Moran, M Coogan, James Kelly, &c, &c.

On the motion of Mr T Murphy, seconded by Mr Wm Hickey, Mr Patrick Byrne was moved to the chair.

The Chairman thanked the meeting for calling upon him to take the chair. He said it was not usual to ask a labouring man to preside at a meeting like the present, composed, as it was, of working farmers, labourers, and artisans, but still it was a sign they were all on the side of the working man. He said in one sense perhaps he was well suited for the position of chairman of this meeting, called to consider the grievances of those who tail and spin; for during the past 45 years he had been working as hard as he as able, and he would now tell them the position he had realized after those weary years of toil. H had a wife and seven children; wages, 9s per week. He had to send away one of his children because employment was scarce in the neighbourhood, and now at the turn of life it he happened to be laid up with sickness for three or four weeks, unless he got assistance from neighbours, his little home would be broken up; his family, which should be his support in his old age, would be a drag upon him, as profitable employment cannot be found for them. Chairman continued to say that within one hundred perches of his own door lay land – rich fertile soil, and as long as he could remember it had been a walk for sheep and bullocks; and if he and his family had the privilege of cultivating this soil for their own benefit he would not have to send away his son for want of employment, nor would his family be a drag upon him, but, instead, a source of wealth, and surely it could not be God’s law which keeps him or any man like him off this rich soil in order to make room for bullocks and sheep (applause). He would now call upon Mr. Pelin, who would explain the objects of the meeting.

Mr. Pelin, who was warmly received said – This meeting has been called at the request of a large number of farmers and labourers to inquire into the cause of the poverty of the working farmers, and the low wages, uncertain employment, and bad houses of the landless labourers. At first sight it seems easy enough to give an answer to the inquiry, but when you make the experiment of questioning a half a dozen farmers and half a dozen labourers you will find that these dozen men will give you ten reasons all quite different as to the cause of the bad times. Ask a farmer with twenty acres of poor land, trying to support a wife and large young family, and he will tell you if he got a reduction in his rent and security of tenure all would be well. Ask a large farmer, and he will tell you what the country wants is a Land Purchase Act that will enable the farmers to become the owners of their farms. A labourer in Narraghmore will tell you that a cottage and half an acre of ground, or since Dr Tanner came to the front with his spoon, a whole acre is what the poor man wants. A worker by the sea coast will advocate the building of harbours to enable him to catch herrings, and the toiler in the neighbourhood of a coal mine would wish to see the minerals of the country worked. Thus you see each man forms his own opinions on the subject from his immediate surroundings. All are a little in the right, but considerably wrong. There have been three men whose writings show they stood above all the narrow views on the important question – Dean Swift, Arthur Young, and Sir Robert Kane. Dean Swift, who wrote about the beginning of the 18th century, when the population was something under three millions –“That the sheep, although the gentlest animal in existence was devouring the people of Ireland.” The meaning is that the landlords and graziers and capitalists and all the superior classes advocated emigration as the cure. The people might go to the bush of Australia, the backwoods of Canada, the prairie of America, Terra-del-Fuego, or to ------- but out they should go, as mutton was more profitable than the people. So that people who complain of the landlords evicting the people at the present are most unreasonable, considering that the land-gods allow nearly five millions more human beings to remain on the island. The people should be continually on their marrowbones to thanks them for their goodness. Gratitude must be fled from this island. Arthur Young visited this country about the year 1780, and he declared that in no country could the cultivation of the soil be carried on more successfully. Sir Robert Kane, in the year 1844, made an elaborate examination of the soil, mines, minerals, etc, etc, and as a result he published a work called “The Industrial Resources of Ireland.” In this valuable work it is shown that as a manufacturing country (on a large scale) Ireland can never achieve much success, as she does not possess coal of a suitable character, and coal is the foundation of successful factories. As to the other mines, a company was formed more than fifty years ago to work the mines of all description, and a short time since this company had to cease work for want of profit, but the best proof on the subject is than since 1782, we have had perfect liberty, and as capitalists are animals who have no country, their money would be invested in the mines and factories of the country if one per cent more could be obtained than elsewhere. Is not the sale of Guinness’s porter factory a proof positive, when Irishmen complained they were not allowed to invest their capital for Englishmen got the preference. So that when certain wandering politicians tell us when certain changes take place the mines of Ireland will be worked, factories started, the people all employed, and all will go “merry as a marriage bell,” these individuals only show by this kind of talk they do not undertstand what they are speaking about. But the sheer anchor of the politicians of the year of our Lord, 1892, is Land Purchase. They may be weak on other subjects, but they are all-powerful on this, and they maintain, with an energy which admits of no discussion, that as soon as the graziers and farmers get the land as their own private property, by paying for 49 years a sum much less than they now pay their landlords, then the farmers will be prosperous, then they will pay the labourers much better wages, so that poverty will disappear, the poorhouses will disappear, emigration will cease, and Ireland will become a second edition of the Garden of Eden. Now, let us come down from the giddy heights to which these feather-pated gentlemen have raised us, and enter the house of a fifty acre farmer in this parish, for what land purchase will do there it will do all over the country. Now, let us suppose this farmer has his farm at a moderate rent, say ₤35 per year, and after purchase his annual payment for 49 years will be ₤17. 10s, and afterwards he will hold his fifty acres free. I do not believe any farmer hopes to get more favourable time. According to the views held by present political leaders, the man not alone will, but must increase the pay of his labourers, lighten their toil, and improve their condition, in fact the labourers are set at the farmer’s throat if they do not do so. Let us examine his power to make all these changes. A wife, four children, and three labourers make up his household. This is a thorough honest patriot, and he is determing at any cost to carry out the programme. The only difference in his position for four years to come will be a saving of ₤17 10s per year in his rent, and this he proceeds to divide, share and share alike between himself, wife, four children, and three labourers, in all nine human individuals, which gives to each about ₤2 per annum, or 1½d per day. Now this is the extreme of the improvement which can be effected in the position of the labourer and working farmer under any conceivable scheme of land purchase, and not one farmer in one thousand will get this, nor one labourer in ten thousand. Turn now to the change that will be brought about by a tax of ₤1 per acre on the uncultivated land. At present 12,000,000 acres of the soil of Ireland is let at 17s 4d per acre. A direct tax on land will not increase the value of land, therefore the 12,000,000 acres will be at once given up, and as this land is in every province, county, parish and townland in Ireland, every working farmer and labourer will find at his door the means of employment – idle land and his social condition will be exactly the measure of his industry, intelligence and economy; there will be no unfair advantage; if a man don’t wish to work for another he can work for himself. The amount produced by the rich land which will remain in grass, about ₤8,000,000, will be sufficient to meet all Government expenses and procure a pension of ₤25 per year for all labourers over 65 years of age, and as the young will be employed and the aged pensioners, there will be no necessity for poorhouses, almshouses, or the other evidences of poverty which come as a natural consequence of handing the land over as private property to individuals; for, as Henry George truly observes, “private property in land drives cultivation to the poorest soils and wages to the starvation point.” So taxing the uncultivated land will send cultivation to the richest soil and wages to the highest point. I trust I have made out a case for founding “the Knights of the Plough Union.” Every additional plough set going this parish means permanent employment for three more men; every additional man required means an addition to the wages of the toiler, and as the competition for labour increases the social condition of the people must improve (loud applause).

At the conclusion of Mr. Pelin’s speech the following resolution was unanimously adopted:

That our society be named the “Knights of the Plough,” and that Mr. B Pelin, Mr. John Shannon, and Mr M McDonald be president, treasurer, and hon secretary respectively.

The following were unanimously adopted:-

That we, the working farmers, labourers, and artisans of Narraghmore parish form an organization to reduce our rents, to compel the rich lands of the parish to be cultivated, to increase the wages of the labourer, and provide a pension for all labourers over 65 years of age.

That all workers are eligible for membership.

For all members who are in a position to contribute, the sum of three pence is sufficient as an enrollment fee.

The principal objects are – To gain possession of the fifteen million acres of rich lands of Ireland robbed from the toilers by the landlords and graziers and given over to bullocks and sheep whilst the people are driven to the roadside, the city slums, the emigrant ship and the poorhouses.

A considerable number of members were enrolled, after which the chairman adjourned the meeting to the second Sunday in July.

A report on the first meeting of a highly unusual society of labourers at Narraghmore in June 1892.

[A note from the editor - I came across the Knights some years ago while helping somebody with their research but never had the time to follw up on the Society. Some time later Paul Redmond of Carlow while researching a Thesis on Kilbride the South Kildare M.P. added to my interest and knowledge as did Frank Taaffe in Athy. But it was only recently that we could actually do anything about it. Carl Dodd, a volunteer researcher has painstakinkly researched all the references from the Leader from 1892-1895 and is currently collecting the references from the Kildare Observer - he re-typed and edited the Leinster Leader's newspaper report on the first meeting which is reproduced here. Our thanks to Carl.  - Compiled by Mario Corrigan and Carl Dodd - typed and edited by Carl Dodd]

June 01, 2007

Punchestown colour and music in our pages 100 years ago

Leinster Leader 26 April 2007

Punchestown colour and music in our pages 100 years ago




The end of April can only mean one thing in these parts …. Punchestown.  Since the middle of the 19th century the steeplechase festival in the hills and dips of the east Kildare track has attracted  multitudes. This cosmopolitan assembly in the natural amphitheatre of the Punchestown landscape has long inspired acres of purple prose in the press with columnists vying to out do each other with portrayals of extraordinary elaboration regarding the goings on at the festival, on and off the track.

The Leinster Leader Punchestown columnist of April 1907 was a past master in the art of purple prose. He begins his account with a portryal of ‘Walking Sunday’ – that peculiar tradition where people go to a racecourse with not a horse in sight: ‘ Walking Sunday – as the Sunday immediately preceding the great event is called, was observed in its customary manner. Those who had any inclination to visit the famous racecourse before the soil was defaced by hoofs of horses and myriad feet of the crowd on pleasure bent, turned out on foot, some per cycle, last Sunday and paid a visit to Punchestown.’

Even for locals who never went near the track Punchestown was a landmark on the calendar and an annual prompt for the merchants of Naas to impress the visiting custom . As our columnist observed: ‘ Up to Monday evening Naas had maintained its wonted tranquillity. The only indication afforded up to that of the great fete of Kildare was that shown by active preparations being made by various shopkeepers in renovating by the application of a coat of paint … of which it may be remarked some premises were in sore need.’!

Then, as now, there was a particular demand for fashion with the society ladies of Kildare keen to impress among the racegoing throngs. As the Leader correspondent remarked in more elaborate terms: ‘ those in the shops having to do with the provision of multifarious etceteras required by the members of the fair sex for the occasion were not idle as was evidenced by the displays in the different windows.’

Apart from the paying customers Punchestown week attracted a diversity of wandering minstrels or ‘buskers’ in modern parlance. Our columnist was not entirely impressed with the musical attempts of such minstrels as they clamoured for custom, often in clashing competition, along the Main Street: ‘ Here mixed in one homogenous mass were the representatives of the music which hath charms and the pseudo-music to which all and sundry were treated by raucous-toned vocalists which certainly has not charms for the ordinary mortal.’

Our columnist was clearly fascinated by the musical output of very diverse quality provided by the Punchestown week buskers in the Main Street of the county town, he continued: ‘ On one side of the street “My Irish Molly Oh” was roared (a preferable expression to sung) by a male vocalist of undoubted stentorian lungs: on the opposite side a shrill feminine voice sought, in vain, to captivate the adamantine hearts of passers-by with her unmusical interpretation of ‘Bluebell’. Some distance away a cornet player added to the din, while a dexterously manipulated melodeon and unpretentious fideog completed the discord’

Whatever about musical discord on Punchestown eve there was certainly harmony of colour when the meeting formally got under way on the Tuesday.  The Leader columnist, having left the busking cacophony of Naas behind, made it out to the gentle hills beyond Broadfield and recorded the opening formalities:

‘Among the distinguished visitors to Punchestown was the Lord Lieutenant, Lord Aberdeen, who arrived with a small party from the Viceregal Lodge. He drove in semi-state with escorts and outriders from Naas railway station to the course. Here he was met by Mr. Arthur Pollock, Master of Fox Hounds; Baron de Robeck; the Earl of Mayo, and Col. St. Leger Moore in hunting costume.’  

Compiled by Liam Kenny from the rich resource of the Leinster Leader files, Local History Dept., Kildare Co. Library. Series No. 13

Liam Kenny's article from the Leinster Leader 26 April 2007 regarding the sights and sounds of the Punchestown from the Leinster Leader of 1907 - from his regular column, 'Nothing New Under the Sun.' Our thanks to Liam.

Fair weather fans miss GAA classic at Athy, 8 April 1907

Leinster Leader 19 April 2007

Fair weather fans miss GAA classic at Athy


Liam Kenny

The expression ‘fair weather followers’ is often to be heard when a successful team suddenly attracts greater crowds to its fixtures as it progresses in the county championships. However it is not entirely a new phenomenon as the Leader correspondent of 8 April 1907 reported in his colourful account of a game between Roseberry and the Lord Edwards played at a rain-swept show grounds in Athy.

Our intrepid reporter begins his account at Sallins railway station on the morning of the match. He acknowledged that the weather had turned bad  but that does not deter him from delivering a rap on the knuckles to local GAA supporters who stayed home rather than travel to Athy.

‘  yet I was surprised when at Sallins station I met but a fair-sized handful of Gaels who were hardy enough to brave the weather … I thought the Gaels were made of sturdier stuff.’

Whatever about the deficiency in numbers there was high praise for the local club in Athy which had gone to great rounds to ensure the efficient staging of the fixture ‘At the Show Grounds everything was well arranged for the contest … The ground was railed in, a barricade was erected around the goal and point posts. Never once was there the least obstruction from the crowd. The members of the Athy (Geraldine) Football Club were everywhere in evidence.’

The game itself was reported in prose that was both clinical in its accuracy yet unsparing in its enthusiasm. It is worth taking quoting some passages at length to savour the writing style of the day.  ‘The first exchanges were in favour of Roseberry and for fully five minutes the Lord Edwards goal was besieged. The heavy going and the wet ball put anything like pretty play out of the question.’

The Newbridge side (Roseberry) had bad luck with the wet pitch ‘ Jack Murphy failed at the kick out, for in an endeavour to send to the side, the ball slipped off his foot right into a bunch of players in front of the goal. In the melee that followed McCormack got posession and shot the third point for Lord Edwards.’

The Edwards retained their lead to half time with a four points to two scoreline.  The men of 1907 were clearly built for stamina because while half-time was blown the players got no rest. ‘ Without any interval Mr. Crowe (referee) whistled up both tteams and immediately was begun the most sensational half-hour’s football it has ever been my good fortune to witness.’

This time it was Roseberry’s chance to reassert themselves. In the breathless prose of the Leader reporter:

‘ With the wind and sun in their favour, Roseberry set to work to level matters … Scott, Conlon and Kennedy were simply blinding the Lord Edwards backs and they ran up four points by the most brilliant play.’

The excitement of the reporter comes screaming through his frenetic account of the closing ten minutes: ‘ Now it is death or glory and the pace becomes even more terrific. Losty secures possession and is interfered with by Jack Murray who held the terrible little forward by the legs.’  But things were to get even more physical: ‘ Terrible play at midfield; Scott (of Lord Edwards) gets knocked out and a consequent delay.’  Clearly Scott had Lazarus like qualities because he not alone recovered but grabbed the hopped ball taken by the referee after the incident and ‘ scored the equaliser from very far out’.

The match finished at seven points each and the excitable correspondent concluded as follows: ‘The ball was slippery as an eel and how the players managed to control it so perfectly passes my comprehension. It was by far the greatest game of football I ever witnessed.’!

 Compiled by Liam Kenny from the rich resource of the Leinster Leader files, Local Studies Dept., Kildare County Library.  Series No.12

Liam Kenny's article from the Leinster Leader 19 April 2007 regarding a football match between Roseberry and the Lord Edwards at Athy in the Leader of 1907 - from his regular column, 'Nothing New Under the Sun.' Our thanks to Liam. 


Turnips and cycles the order of the day

Leinster Leader 12 April 2007

Turnips and cycles the order of the day


Liam Kenny

Turnips, turnips, turnips – not the most arresting of headlines in a paper but this was the lead in to an advertisement viewed with great interest by the practical Leinster Leader readers of April 1907.

A major role of the paper then, as now, was to provide a market place for the multitude of goods and services being traded by the householders, artisans and farmers in the locality.  So important were the small advertisements that the newspaper management placed columns of small ads on the front page– clearly reflecting too the value of the ads as revenue for the paper.

The following is snapshot of the small ads in the Leinster Leader in April 1907.

Starting with our Turnips! Advertisement readers were told to
 ‘Apply to Morrin, Kilteel for a quantity of good turnips, Green and Purple Top For Sale – cheap.’

Given the prominence of farming in the county economy it is not surprising that many of the advertisements featured produce being sold by farmers. Equally there was no shortage of early farm machinery or curative products being marketed by suppliers to farmers. The following are some samples:-

‘ Conway’s Foot Rot  Cure is a Speedy Remedy for Foot Rot or Halt in Sheep. NB: A Genuine Article from practical experience,  not paper knowledge. Price 9d per bottle. Prepared only by Conway, Naas.’

‘ Corn Drills – Drills with two wheel steerage or pole. Price list and all particulars on application to Duthie, Large and Company, Foundry, Athy.’

All aspects of the rural economy were evident in the small ads, often proclaimed with an entrepeneurial flourish:

‘ Eggs for setting – Pure Minorcas, 1s a setting, postage 6d; Prize winners,  Apply Mrs. Kennedy, Monread, Naas.’

 There was also evidence of a property market as witnessed by the following advertisements:

‘ Furnished apartments to let. Inquire Miss Scott, Friary Road, Naas.’

‘ To Let – Rose Cottage, Rathcoole; Five Apartments; good garden; nice frontage, shrubs. Apply: P. Hayden, Rathcoole.’

‘ To Let – Cottage and Two Acres, Capdoo Commons, Clane. Apply Ms. Minney.’

And if any of the foregoing property owners were inclined to improve the amenity of their premises the Leader small ads of April 1907 highlighted a range of what today we might call ‘DIY’ products:

‘ Bricks!Bricks!Bricks! For Tullamore Bricks, apply to T. P. and R Goodbody, Tullamore.’

‘ Field Drainage – drain pipes of best quality at moderate prices, also flower pots and all kinds of garden pottery, delivered free on rail from Dublin. W O McCormick, Kill O’the Grange pottery, Monkstown.’

Modern homeowners with environmental inclinations might be surprised to learn that a  century ago there was a premium on low energy household amenities. A small advertisement under the heading ‘Water’ proclaimed that the Duthie Large foundry in Athy would ‘Supply and erect Hydraulic Rams and Windmills for Water Supplies at the lowest rates.’

Getting around the county was also a low energy affair judging by the means of transport highlighted in the small advertisements. Although the first motor cars had made an appearance the bicycle was still the preferred modes of travel, a reality reflected in the advertisements:

‘ Intending purchases of the famous Rudge Whitworth bicycles, please note we are the sole agents for Maynooth, Kilcock and districts. Prices: ladies and gents from £5 8shillings. Dawsons, Maynooth.’

While Dawsons may have cornered the bicycle market in north Kildare further south there was competition from across the county boundary:

‘ Humber Cycles, still best for honest value. From £6 6s cash – Price Brothers, Portarlington.’

Thus a survey of the Leinster Leader small advertisements revealed an impressive array of products for sale. It may be a far cry from the bouncy castles or computer debugging services which feature in the small ads of April 2007 but it reflects the ongoing role of the paper as marketplace for a multitude of daily needs and luxuries.

Compiled by Liam Kenny, from the rich resources of the Leinster Leader files in the Local History Dept., Kildare County Library.

Liam Kenny's article from the Leinster Leader 12 April 2007 highlighting the range of goods and services on offer in the small advertisemnets in the Leader of 1907 - from his regular column, 'Nothing New Under the Sun.' Our thanks to Liam.

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