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LEIXLIP CHRONOLOGY 1600 - 1649AD

Leixlip Chronology, 1600 – 1649 

Compiled by John Colgan   

1600:  The practice of Modern Irish language is taken as dating from this time.

1600:  Sir Robert Cecil, in a note dated 24/4/1600, explaining who were acceptable to work in Ireland with the English against the rebels, observed: “For the Irish [= Scots of Gaelic ancestry] Scots, the Campbells and the [Macleans] only are to be trusted”. [EG Atkinson (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1600, London, 1903; 24/4/1600, p118.]

1600:  In a letter dated 4/7/1600, Lord Mountjoy wrote to Sir Robert Cecil, a long obscure appraisal of the progress of the rebellion.  Of the rebels he wrote: “In Leinster they continue strong. The Enes [?], and whatsoever the Queen’s forces do not cover, that they take, and waste whatsoever they do not defend, which is impossible for us to do in all parts.” [EG Atkinson (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1600, London, 1903; 24/4/1600, p301.]

1600:  Pardon to Robert Bell, of Carton, Allison Donogh of Maynowth, Wm M’Kechoe [=McKeogh, a family now resident at Confey/Moor of Meath], of Leixlip, Co Kildare. [Fiant No 6459, Elizabeth I, dated 22/9/1600, The Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns during the Reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Philip & Mary, and Elizabeth I, Vol III, 1521-1588, Dublin, 1994.]

1600:  Elizabeth I in a fiant No 6459 and dated 22/12/1600, granted pardon to [inter alia] Robert Bell of Carton; Morish Malone of Maynooth, Phelim Dempsie of Clowchonell, Co Kildare; Wm McKechoe, [= McKeogh] of Leixlip; Gerrot O’Ferrall of  .. Co. Kildare.  Provided that this pardon shall not extend to pardon any intrusion upon possession of the crown, or release any debt, fine or alienation, account or arrears, payable to the crown.

Note early mention of Leixlip names: Bell, Dempsey, Farrell, Malone, McKeogh.

1600:  A long State paper, from December 1600, assesses the causes of the rebellion in Ireland. On religion it notes:
“For no one cause hath given greater furtherance to all the combinations [= unions, groups] of Ireland, than the loose hand which hath been held over the government of the Church… For generally, through the whole realm, a use hath been permitted of the Romish religion, and little diligent search made after Jesuits and seminaries, that these many years have roamed up and down from beyond the seas to practise mischief and work combinations, …  and I fear have lived the more securely through corruption that hath been used, which I rather think, because of the common use that is of the mass in towns, who it is said have and do pay well for same.”  “And though I could name many towns where masses are thus used, yet do I observe none so publicly as at Kilkenny and Clonmel… And in this very city of Dublin, there are not above twenty householders of the country birth that do come to church..” [EG Atkinson (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1600-1601, London, 1905; December 1600, p122.]

c1600:  Lord Walter FitzGerald reports [JKAS, Vol II, 1899-1902, p118+] that following an analysis of the Elizabethan Fiants, Inquisitions and funeral entries, that the following were in occupation of properties specified: John fitz Thomas Alen (d 29/9/1616), St Wolstan's; Nicholas fitz John Eustace (d 1648), Confey; Gerald fitz Edward, 14th Earl of Kildare (d 11/2/1612), Maynooth; Richard Manering or Mainwaring, Leixlip;  William Roe (d c1617), Branganstown; Sir Wm fitz Robert Talbot, Bart, (d 16/3/1633), Carton;  Sir Nicholas fitz Andrew White or Whyte, Knt, (d 24/2/1654), Leixlip;

1601:  Notes in Sir Robert Cecil’s hand, of April, 1601: We must provide transport for 4,000 men [to Ireland]: inter alia, 300 from Essex, 300 from London etc [the two largest numbers by town/area]. [EG Atkinson (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1600-1601, London, 1905; April, 1601, p301.]

Note that Essex seems to be the origin of the Glascock family, eventually of Leixlip and Dublin.

1601:  The Earl of Kildare is living at Maynooth castle. [Robert Pentland Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1601-3, (with Addenda 1565-1654), London, 1912; 1601, p1.]

1601:  The O Connors and the O Moores of Leix{lip- error?} and Ophaly were excluded from pardons granted. [Fiant No 6531, Elizabeth I, dated 27/5/1601, The Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns during the Reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Philip & Mary, and Elizabeth I, Vol III, Dublin 1994; ditto, Fiant No 6551, June, 1601; and Fiant No 6561, July, 1601; and Fiant No 6661, dated 23/6/1602.]

1601:  In a letter dated 14/8/1601, Captain E Fitzgerald wrote to Secretary Cecil noting that: “The heir of Sir Nicholas White, late Master of the Rolls in Ireland, also holds some of [the lands in the English pale] by inheritance”. [Robert Pentland Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1601-3, (with Addenda 1565-1654), London, 1912; 14/8/1601, p35.]

1601:  A memorandum entitled a ‘Discourse on Ireland’ (no author cited) includes the following of local relevance: ‘Her Majesty owns many castles and puts constables and garrisons into them which she pays: but there is no reason why she should not charge the constables rent for the land attached to the Castles. As it is important that there should be many English gentry in the country it is desirable that no knight should have more than 1,000 acres and no captain that is not a knight more than 800, no private gentleman above 700, and no farmer above 200 and no husbandman or churl above 120. The most deserving should be given the best lands.    The woods and bogs are a great hindrance to us and help to the rebels, who can, with a few men, kill many of ours in a wood though which they can pass only at certain passes. The rebels can then remain in the woods till they recruit their strength. In the bogs our soldiers, who know them, can fight at no great loss, and can see the enemy’s strength; but in woods they may fall into an “ambushcado”. If the country is quieted by cutting off the principal rebels much good could be done to the bogs by our labour and by the Irish churls felling, dressing and burning the trees in heaps. This could be done whilst leaving sufficient timber for the use of the country, if a tree is left every 20 yards and the shrubs, etc., either stocked up at the first or continually cut up”. [Robert Pentland Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1601-3, (with Addenda 1565-1654), London, 1912; 1601, p253.]

c1601:  Several mentions of Sir Edward Herbert, Knight, and his band of soldiers in Ireland. A Herbert occupied property in Main Street, Leixlip, in the vicinity of Rye Cottage, c1850. [Robert Pentland Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1601-3, (with Addenda 1565-1654), London, 1912; 1601-2]

c1601:  Garrott Sutton petitioned to have his father’s, David Sutton’s, attainder reversed. David Sutton of Castleton [Castletown], Kildrought, was attainted at the time of Lord Grey’s government. [Hist. Mss Commission, Rep Salisbury Mss Pt XIV, 1923, p196].  See 1599.

1602:  Details of expenditure on the Irish Army during the year 1601-2 in a document dated 19/3/1602, includes a payment to William Bell, chief engineer. (Note Leixlip & Cooldrinagh family of Bell, including a William, in recent times). Under the heading, ‘Wardens in the different castles’, there is no specific mention of Leixlip Castle and only one castle at Dublin called Tristram Eccleston is mentioned with a constable and ten warders. [Robert Pentland Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1601-3, (with Addenda 1565-1654), London, 1912; 19/3/1602, p345.]

1602:  A list dated 25/3/1602 of the Lords Lieutenants, Lords Deputies, and Lords Justice of Ireland - from Richard Strongbow [sic], Earl of Pembroke, and Raymond le Gros (1174) to Charles, Lord Mountjoy (1602), compiled by Thady Dowling, Chancellor of the diocese of Leighlin. Similar to Haydn’s Book of Dignities, ed. 1894, p550+. Also pedigree of Walter, Earl of Essex, Earl Marshal of Ireland, who died 21/9/1576, aged 36, in Dublin and who is buried in Camarthan - from Richard Strongbow and Eve, daughter of Dermot MacMorough, King of Leinster. [Robert Pentland Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1601-3, (with Addenda 1565-1654), London, 1912; 25/3/1602, p353.]

1602:  In October 1602 there were 2,120 foot soldiers and 299 horse soldiers under 16 captains in Leinster and borders of the English Pale. At 20/11/1602 there were “Attending the Lord Deputy: 100 horse; 200 on foot, always in Dublin, as the Lord Deputy’s guard.  There is no mention of soldiers garrisoned at Leixlip, and only mention of garrisons at places outside the Pale. [Robert Pentland Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1601-3, (with Addenda 1565-1654), London, 1912; 1602, p520-1.]

1602:  The State Pensions List for Ireland for 1602 shows John Beare, aka Beere, as serjeant-at-law receiving an pension of £27 6s 8d this year and nothing in 1611. Note that the name Beere has connections with the Black Castle, Leixlip and Maynooth town. See 1613. [In CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1611-1614, London, 1877, p197, citing Carew Papers, Vol 629, p105]

c1602:  Record stating that William Marshal, Earl of Pembroke, had his property divided between his five daughters, Matilda, Isabella, Eva, Johanna and Sibella. [Robert Pentland Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State Papers relating to Ireland, Elizabeth 1601-3, (with Addenda 1565-1654), London, 1912; 1602, p353.]

1602-3:  Pardon to Barnaby or Brian O’Connor, of Dirremolen, King’s co, Lisagh O’Connor, of same, gent, Elizabeth O’ Connor, sister of Barnaby, Callogh O’ Connor, his son, Alexander O Connor, his other son, and many more O’Connors. Barnaby and Lisagh O Connor were excepted from a provision requiring security. [Fiant No 6777, dated 23/3/1602-3, cited in The Irish Fiants of the Tudor Sovereigns during the Reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Philip & Mary, and Elizabeth I, Vol III, Dublin 1994.] Note that the various O’Connor names mentioned are probably all relatives of Lisagh, who was later of Black Castle, and Donaghmore, Leixlip.

c1603:  Although catalogued as sometime in 1604, more likely to be before May, 1603 [see below], Richard Hudson sent a long discourse on Ireland to James I, anxious to be of service, and calling for legislative reform of specified, even-handed kind.  He also referred to the history of the Earls of Kildare and their attainder. He gave a clue to his own provenance thus: “.. his grandfather being an Englishman, and having left him a poor patrimony within the English Pale there,.. etc” [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1604, p239.]

Hudson may have given his name to Hudson’s holding at or near Newtown, Leixlip, shown on Thos Conolly’s map of his lands in Leixlip, c1730. St Mary’s, Leixlip, Baptism Register shows 5 baptisms of this name between 1711 and 1723.

1603:  In a draft letter dated 18/5/1603, James I wrote (no named recipient): In consideration of the service of Richard Hudson, grants him the reversion of the next avoidance [= clearing out] of the office of the Exchequer in Ireland, late in the occupation of one Colman, with all the fees, profits and commodities thereunto belonging. A grant thereof to be made to him for his life. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872,  18/5/1603, p589.]

1603:  On 28/12/1603, the Lord Deputy Carey wrote to Sir Robert Cecil: …The plague increaseth in the city, and is much dispersed in the country. They are in great distress for want of food; none for three months for 2,300 soldiers in Leinster. The kingdom is in famine and great scarcity. Food must be supplied from England. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 28/12/1603, p117.]

1604:  A list of Army staff and pensioners dated 31/1/1604 does not refer specifically to Leixlip castle, but includes six others including Dublin, Wexford and Duncannon; nor does it provide for pay to any warden in the Castle or any fort in Leixlip. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 31/1/1604, p251-6.]
This suggests the Castle was empty or not in the State’s hands at that time, being leased to a dignity or perhaps derelict? It also suggests that Carey was not staying in the Castle, unless he had rented it as a country retreat.

c1604:  Inquisition held 20th February, 2nd King James [Assumed I], finds that James Cottrell, the last abbot [of the Abbey of St Thomas, Dublin], was seized of the lands of the manor of Leixlip; and the right of a flagon of ale out every brewing in the said town;  annual value of the whole, besides reprises, 10s. [Chief Remembrancer] [Mervyn Archdall, Monasticum Hibericum: or a history of the abbeys, priories, and other religious houses in Ireland, Vol II, Dublin, 1879, p54.]

1604:  Sir George Carey, writing to Sir Robert Cecil on 26/4/1604 from Dublin, notes that “The sickness still continuing in Dublin, he has adjourned this Easter term, and has provided that Midsummer term may be at Drogheda… Being desirous to dispatch some business, he and Mr Fran Richard purpose [= propose] to lie at Leeslippe [Leixlip], seven miles from Dublin”. He beseeches that the sheriff, justiciar and the Master of the Rolls may be speedily sent hither.. so that the people may begin to taste justice. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 26/4/1604, p162-3.]

1604:  On 2/5/1604 the Lord Deputy, Sir George Carey wrote to the Attorney General from Leixlip. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 2/5/1604, p166.]. 

He wrote again from Leixlip on 15/5/1604 authorising a pardon for 22 persons. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 15/5/1604, p168.]

1604:  Sir George Carey, the Lord Deputy, wrote to Cecil [in London] from Leixlipp [Leixlip] on 20/5/1604 recommending a person for the ‘bishoprick of Kildare’. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 20/5/1604, p175.] On the same day he wrote another letter from Leixlip to Cecil, expressing a desire to come to England for 2 or 3 months and recommending Sir Arthur Chichester in his place. He also asked for money to pay poor servitors etc. and requested the hasty return to Ireland of the Chief Justice and Master of the Rolls, as “many grants daily pass and the King’s Council here are but weak..” [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 20/5/1604, p175.] On the same day the Lord Deputy and Council of Ireland wrote another letter from Leixlip to the Lords of the Council in England. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 20/5/1604, p168-9.]

It is unclear without further enquiry where the Lord Deputy stayed while he was in Leixlip in May 1604, avoiding the city plague.  Perhaps it was at St Catherine’s?  Or at the Castle? Or in a separate residence, perhaps built near the later Musick Hall? Further enquiry is needed.

1604:  By 16/6/1604, the Lord Deputy, Sir George Carey, has moved to Drogheda, as he intimated, and writes from there. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 16/6/1604, p180.]  He was also there at 19/6/1604 and wrote to the Solicitor General with a warrant [opus cit, p180].

1604:  The Lord Deputy Carey was clearly in Leixlip in July, August, September and October, 1604, for there are records of letters sent by him from Leixlip to Viscount Cranbourne (2 items) [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 7/10/1604, p202.], to the Solicitor General, a pardon for 16 persons [opus cit, 10/9/1604, p196 and 10/7/1604, p183] and to any member of His Majesty’s Council in London [opus cit, 18/8/1604, p191].

George Carey had a reputation for ‘feathering his own nest’ and amassed a fortune of silver and plate as well as money while he served in Ireland, which wealththe returned to England upon his completion of his term of office in Ireland.. He was not without his critics.

1604:  In a report of a communication from Sir Arthur Chichester to Viscount Cranbourne [= Sir Robert Cecil], dated 28/6/1604 is stated: “On coming hither from Lyslyppe [Leixlip] for the casting of their men, [he] heard of the arrival of seven score of islanders at the Rowte [in Antrim], to Sir Randal McDonnell, under the command of Donnel Graeme [Vide note on O’Colgan, 1602], with such arms as they usually bear.” [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 28/8/1604, p194.]

1604:  A catalogue of certain ecclesiastical livings, dignities and prebends in the diocese of Dublin, which exceed £30 sterling and names of the incumbents etc.  Appended is a list of some or all which do not meet the £30 threshold; among these are: “the prebend of Donamore [=Donaghmore], with Michell Bellerbie, a graduate in the University, a minister and able to preach”. He patron is the archbishop of Dublin and the prebend is in the Cathedral Church of St Patrick. There is no mention of St Catherine’s, which was, of course, closed by the State. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1604, p169-171.]

1605:  On a State record dated 22/5/1605 is noted that Sir John Davys [Davies], Knt., is Master of the Rolls. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1605, p277.]

1604 or 5:  CL Adams, ‘The Castles of Ireland’ - Leixlip, in The Irish Times, of probably 8/6/1901, wrote that an inquisition taken on the lands of Nicholas Whyte Esq at Leixlip omitted all mention of the castle, although the salmon weir and other portions of the original grant are enumerated. [Transcripts of Inquisitions.] Miss Adams has been mistaken in other parts of the same article. She has confused Lucan and Leixlip and the Castle and the Black Castle.

1605:  ‘A Petition to the Lord Deputy by the Nobility and Gentry of the English Pale’ is interesting as much for the names of the Catholics who signed it as it is for its contents. The signatures confirmed that while they were Catholics, they were loyal to the King; that their priests did not seek to damage that loyalty; they asked not to be compelled against their religion and conscience.
Those from the county of Kildare were: the Lords Bellewe, Eustace, Fitzgerald and Sarsfield; James (3), Thos, Gerald, Garrett, Redmond, Oliver, Edward (2), and Maurice Fitzgerald; Gerald Aylemer; Nicholas & Thos Wogan; Maurice, Nicholas (2), Oliver, Walter, James and Christopher Eustace; John (2) Allen; John Sarsfield; John & Gerald Sutton; Barth. Symson; Patrick Tipper; Edw. Nangle; Edward Nugent; Chris & Thos Flattesberie; Oliver Rochfort; Andrew Sherlocke; Chris Welshe; N Latin and Walter Harrold. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1605, p362-4.]

1605:  Thomas Luttrell of Luttrellstown, Co Dublin, Esq, sold to Bartholomew Kent of Danestown, Gent., by deed dated 27/9/1605, all his possessions in Luttrellstown, etc in Co Dublin, and Leixlip, Donamore etc in Co Kildare, in consideration of a certain (unspecified) sum of money, to hold for ever as of the chief lord of the fee.[Brian C Donovan & David Edwards, British Sources for Irish History 1485-1641, p245, Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1997.]

1605:  There appears among the State pensioners newly elected by warrant of James I and the Lords of the Council, one Lisagh O’Connor, at a pension of 4s per diem. The decision date was 4/9/1603. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1605, p254-5.]. See 1606 for more details. O’Connor died in Leixlip; see note on his funeral and will.

1605:  Samuel Molyneux (aka Mullineux), marshal in the Star chamber, received £13 6s 8d p.a. in an abstract of fees, pensions, and annuities paid out of the King’s revenues in 1605; so, too did Daniel Molyneux receive £97 6s 8d this year in the same abstract.  Daniel’s was described as “a bought pension”. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1605, p377.]

Are these Molyneux, who shared the same first and surnames as the iron mill owners of Leixlip, the ancestors of the latter, who came a couple of generations later?

1606:  For Samuel Molyneux (see 1605), his pension of the same amount was listed for this year in an abstract. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1606, p433.]

1606:   On 20/1/1606 the Irish Star Chamber censored two Dublin Aldermen for refusing to go to the established church on Sunday.  They were heavily fined and “committed to His Majesty’s Castle of Dublin during the Lord Deputy’s pleasure, and also to be removed from the said castle to some other of HM’s castles or forts wherever the Lord Deputy shall think meet, except in the meantime they shall conform and take the oath of supremacy.” [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1606, p391.]

1606:  On 17/4/1606 Sir John Davys was promoted to Attorney General, and the A.G. promoted to a judgeship (a draft document)..  [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1606, p391.]

1606:  A further record of Lisagh O’Connor’s pension (of same amount as in 1605), with a note that this is to be his pension after his employment in the wars or when “other gifts from His Majesty cease”. Evidently, Lisagh was a soldier. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1606, p425.]

1606:  A note written by Sir Arthur Chichester, dated 13/9/1606, records that Dublin and other towns are deserted because of the plague; grass was growing in the streets. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872, 1606, p571.]

1606:  an abstract of the fees, pensions and annuities paid out of His Majesty’s revenues in the year 1606 included Sir Anthony St Leger [aka Sentleger], Knight, Master of the Rolls. He received £192 4s 51/4 p.a. This was the second highest paid court official.  While the same abstract listed the keepers or constables of many castles and Naas gaol, there was no mention of Leixlip castle, suggesting that the Castle, if not a ruin then, was in occupation as a residence.[CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872,  1606, p430.]

1606-7:  A return of Crown Lands and Tithes now in Lease from the King in Ireland provides a comprehensive inventory of major property owners in co Kildare. Included in Leixlip are:

Assigns of Sir Anthony St Leger, Knight [Master of the Rolls], Blackstowne [=Blakestown]; Anthony Broughton, great tithes of Leixlip; Andrew Whitt (sic, but actually Andrew White), a messuage in Leixlipp [the Castle or St Catherine’s?]; Richard Nobel, rectory of Leixlippe.
In addition, Patrick Cullen and John Cullen hold lands; Sir Edward Brabazon, Knight has the rectory of Kildrought; James Bee, of Dublin, goldsmith, has Sir Morrice FitzThomas’s farm in Kildrought, part of the possessions of David Hutton (sic, but probably Sutton); Sir Patrick Barnewall, Knight, has the tithes of Kilcocke; Edward Fitzgerald has Kilcock; Rut[t]lidge has Oughterard; Asshe [=Ashe] has a castle in Naas; John Davis has the tithes of Kilbride near Osberston [=Osberstown]; sir William Usher, Knight, has the rectory of Cloncurry and the executors of Richard Noble [the same?] have other lands. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1603-1606, London, 1872,  1606-7, p58-59.]

Note that Ashe, Ruttledge and Cullen have Leixlip connections even in recent times, and a Glascock lived at Kilbride.

1607:  Nicholas White, Leixlip, eldest son of Andrew, was a Ward, Feb.12, 1607-08; Livery Jan. 1, 1620-21 and later MP for Maryborough.

1608:  Anthony St Leger, [Master of the Rolls] received an extraordinary payment of £74 13s 4d for his travelling charges in his [court] circuit for the year, 1/10/1607 – 30/9/1608. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1608-1610, London, 1874, 1608, p73]. He had a residence at Blakestown, Leixlip.

1609:  In a list of State pensioners of Ireland, dated 14/3/1609, Lisagh O’Connor has £73 Irish p.a. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1608-1610, London, 1874, 14/3/1609, p168].

1609:  By letter of 5/6/1609 the King wrote to Sir Arthur Chichester stating that having given permission to Sir Anthony Sentleger [=St Leger], late Master of the Rolls of Ireland, to leave and make his abode in England, and having chosen Sir Francis Aungier to take his place, Chichester is to admit him to that office with all such fees, house rent, etc. as St Leger had. . [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1608-1610, London, 1874, 5/6/1609, p212].

1610:  A State document on the plantation of the escheated lands of Ulster lists the [then] Sir Nicholas White [sic] as a servitor not in pay who is willing to “undertake”, including an undertaking to build castles or forts on any lands he is given. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1608-1610, London, 1874,  29/1/1610, p368]. This would be the son of Sir Nicholas White the late, deceased Master of the rolls in Ireland.

1611:  A list of State pensions etc., dated September 1611, which includes references to constables of forts and gaols, including Dublin, Limerick, Carlow, Trim, Kilkenny and Wexford; Naas and other gaols, but makes no specific mention of Leixlip.

It may reasonably be concluded that Leixlip may have been in ruins at this time, unless there is other evidence to the contrary. [See TB Barry, The Archaeology of Medieval Ireland, London, 1999ed, p65]

1612:  Several references are made in the State papers to Peter Easton, pirate gang leader, with ample wealth, the efforts to appease him and the protection afforded him by James I.  He arrived in the island of Valentia on 27/9/1612. [In CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1611-1614, London, 1877, p287.]

1612:  On 5/11/1612 Abraham Jacob, merchant, of London, had demised to him the right to collect the imposts [= tax, duty] on all wines imported.  This was an instruction from James I to Sir Arthur Chichester. [In CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1611-1614, London, 1877, 5/11/1612, p298.]

1612:  CL Adams, ‘The Castles of Ireland’ - Leixlip, in The Irish Times, of probably 8/6/1901, wrote that in September 1612 an inquisition was held which stated that Gerald FitzGerald, son of Gerald, late Earl of Kildare, and uncle of Gerald, late Earl of Kildare, was seized of one castle, three messuages, one ruined water-mill, and forty acres of arable land at Leixlip. [Transcripts of Inquisitions.]  The castle is probably the Black Castle, not Leixlip Castle.

1613:  On 14/3/1613 James I instructed Lord Chichester to grant to Captain John Sanford [Sandford], his heirs and assigns, forever, all the lands, etc. which passed to the King by the attainder of the late Earls of Tyrone and Tyrconnell in Ulster. [In CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1611-1614, London, 1877, 14/3/1613, p329.]

1613:  In July 1613 is a report of a dispute in the Irish Commons at which Everard and many recusants withdrew from the House. Mr Beere, lately the King [James I]’s Serjeant, was sent by the House to require Everard to return etc. The report was signed by Thomas Beare and others. [In CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1611-1614, London, 1877, p403, citing Carew Papers, Vol 600, p20.]

1613:  On 12/11/1613 was published a report of a Commission to examine abuses in Ireland. The report is very long and includes a section on derelict churches, a summary of which follows: “It appears [from the examinations] that the laws for the advancement of God’s true religion are in very few places put in execution; as hardly any jury will present recusants, themselves being delinquents for the most part in the same kind, and wherever at any time heretofore they have presented, they themselves have been excommunicated, and these others terrified.” [Waterford practice cited as an example]. “That the true religion is not reverenced by contemned, principally through the multitude of Popish schoolmasters, priests, friars, Jesuits, and seminaries authorized by the Pope for every diocese, dignity, and living of value in the kingdom, who vigilantly and earnestly execrate and dissuade it.”  “The ruined churches, unfit for any assembly, the many recusant justices of peace, etc. who animate the people in their disobedience; the number of priests from seminaries erected for the Irish in Spain and the Low Countries, and the colleges of the Jesuits there, each of which instructs two students of the Irish.”  “The want of ministers and preachers arises from the want of livings to sustain them, by reason of a multitude of impropriations [= church lands etc., the tithes of which are in lay hands]; which is also the cause of the ruined state of the parish churches, as the owners and farmers of the impropriations will not maintain the chancels, and by their example the people neglect the rebuilding of the churches.”.  The Commission goes on to recommend a strict execution of the laws against Popish priests and schoolmasters, to enforce attendance at church; to weed out Popish priests and to be rid of idle and scandalous ministers. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1611-1614, London, 1877, 1613, p446-7.]

1613:  Among Lord Chichester’s ‘Answers to recusants’ complaints’ is one relating to statute laws banning the export of linen and other items. He confirmed that in the 2nd year of James I a licence was granted to two men to export 1,200 packs of linen yarn each year, but to none other. [In CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1611-1614, London, 1877, p379.]

1614:  By order dated 7/8/1614 James I directed Lord Chichester to establish a Commission to examine how every diocese is furnished etc. Among the Commissioners were Thomas, Archbishop of Dublin, the Chancellor. [In CW Russell and JP Prendergast (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1611-1614, London, 1877, 7/8/1614, p497.]

1615:  On 23/4/1615 a proclamation against the export from Ireland of wood for pipe staves etc was issued. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (eds), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880,  23/4/1615, p48]. May be related to use for smelting iron?

1615:  List of Army and pensioners for 1615 at per diem rates includes Captain John Sandford, Constable of Doe Castle, and Lysagh O’Connor [Leixlip] was a ‘pensioner newly elected’ same year, according to this list. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (eds), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880, 1615, p12]. Sandford is also listed as a servitor with 1,000 acres allocated to him in Co Donegal in 1618 [opus cit, p225].

1615:  In this year King James I (reigned 1603-1625) commissioned a group of dignitaries to visit all the churches, priest’s house, and spiritual livings generally in every diocese to see if they were supplied with incumbents; to assess the number of able preachers, and the ability and sufficiency of the clergy; to determine if any benefices were conferred on lay persons or popish priests; to assess the state of repairs of all churches, and whether furnished with tables, eats, pulpits, books and other ornaments; and the state of repair of parsons’ houses. The chief end of the visitation was to better regulate and administer discipline in the Church and a more convenient and plentiful support of the clergy and of his majesty’s revenue arising out of ecclesiastical benefices. It was intended to remove the benefices to deserving persons who would ensure that his revenues from the first fruits (of new titles or benefices); to advise on the best locations for parish churches; to carry out an inventory of church property, clergy, public notaries, clerical teachers and physicians. Many persons had been given lands by the realm which had been confiscated from monasteries and the like; these were called ‘impropriations’ and the receivers of the income off them, ‘impropriators’. The commission members included several archbishops, and, inter alia, Sir Arthur Savage, Sir Oliver Lambert, Sir John King, Sir Richard Ayleward, Sir Thomas Ashe, Sir Robert Nugent and Sir Robert Pigott.

Within the Deanery of Salmon Leap, alias Leixlip, only six churches were in good repair. It was reported that the church of Leixlip and its chancel were in a good state, with books etc, and the curate was Thomas Keatinge, a minister who could read. Keatinge was also the curate at Larabrin, which was in a similar condition. Wm Waters, another minister who could read, was the vicar at Kildroght, facilities similarly good; and at Kiladown (a ruin); and he was in charge of the vicarage of Straffan, the church and chancel of which was in good repair, and whose curate was Edward Piers, who could read and had books. The church, now in ruins, is in the graveyard at Straffan. Thomas Keatinge was also curate of Donacumper, where he was a resident minister. The church and roof were in good repair. In another Deanery, Oumurthey, Thomas Keatinge is again reported as the priest at Kilkea, near Donadea. Mr Keatinge was still in office in the next visitation, that of 1630 (which see; may be confused with inquisitions of 1657?).[Archivium Hibernicum, Vol. VIII, Maynooth, 1941, p1-5] Lucan, Aderrig, Esker, Palmerstown, Ballyfermot, Clondalkin and Drimnagh, were combined into one parish of Lucan & Clondalkin. [Nessa O’Connor, Palmerstown – An Ancient Place, Dublin, 2003, p35.]

1619:  An indenture made the 26/6/1619 between Walter, Earl of Ormonde and his feoffees [=person entrusted with the freehold, trustee] on the one part and Leysagh Connor of Leixleapp [Leixlip], gentleman, of the other part. Whereas Nicholas Nettervile of Ballegarth , co Meath, esq, now has a lease for an unexpired term of years in the manor of Blackcastell [Black Castle]and Donoghmore with their rights, members and appurtenances  in the co of Meath and of all the lands houses edifices buildings tenements and hereditaments whatsoever to the same manors belonging etc for the yearly rent of £24 sterling reserved and he also held a mortgage from the said Walter Earl, etc, for the sum of £200 stg. In consideration of Leysagh Connor paying Nettervile and assigns £200 for the redemption of the mortgage and the sum of £50 stg payable to Walter Earl of Ormond at the tomb of Strongbow in Christ Church Dublin, Connor, his execs and assigns shall have the said manors etc by permission of Nicholas Netterville during the full term of 51 years following. It was signed by the Earl, Thos Comerford and witnessed by Thos Dongan et al. [D3630, NLI; summarised in Calendar of Ormond Deeds, prepared for the Mss Department, NLI by T Blake Butler, p186.]  

1619:  Leysagh Connor was clearly out of Ireland on 26/6/1619 when he purchased Nicholas Netterville’s interest in the manors of Blackcastle and Donoghmore, so he entered into a bond  (in Latin) wherever he was on this date. The effect of this bond was that “within six months next after such time as the said Lysagh Connor shall now next arrive or land within the realm of Ireland, well and truly satisfy content pay or cause to be paid to Nicholas Netterville of Ballegart in the co of Meath,” £200 stg for the clear and full redemption of Netterville’s mortgage of £24 yearly rent and if he fails to do so Nettervilles obligation to pay his £24 annual rent remains in force. The bond was signed by Le: Conor [signature copied] and witnessed by Theo and John Bourke et al and dated 29/6/1619. [D3631, NLI; summarised in Calendar of Ormond Deeds, prepared for the Mss Department, NLI by T Blake Butler, p187.]  

1619:  A record of an iron mills in co Cork, which required protection. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (eds), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880, 1619, p269].

1619:  Lancelot Bulkeley succeeded as Anglican archbishop of Dublin. Under him the appraisal of churches and schools in the Dublin diocese was conducted. It is probably a relative of his who gave his name to Buckley’s Lane, Leixlip. He died in 1650. [John d’Alton, History of the Archbishops of Dublin, Dublin, 1888.]

1620:  On 18/5/1620 the King reduced ale house licences from 10 shillings to 3s/6d per annum in Ireland and he instructed the Lord Deputy, St John, and the Council to decide on the numbers, fitness, etc. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (eds), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880, 1620, p282]. Are there any licence records extant?

1621:  On 12/6/1621 the commissioners instructed by James I on 28/5/1621 presented their opinions on the general grievances of Ireland, the state of ecclesiastical and civil government and how his income improved and expenditures reduced in Ireland. Of interest is their comments on ‘recusants’ fines’, which amount to 12 pence upon every recusant for not coming to divine services, the revenue going to the King’s almoner, the Primate for his own use. The commissioners noted that the burden on recusants as a result of prosecutions by the sheriffs’ officers. They suggest that for the ease and comfort of the many poor persons, that prosecutions be directed against the better sort of men, so that when reformed the poor will be led by their example without further courses against them. They recommend that out of the fines the comfortable poor in every parish should be provided for above all others, so that others seeing them so regarded may for the like reason reform themselves. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (eds), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880, 12/6/1621, p328-9].

1621:  CL Adams, ‘The Castles of Ireland’  - Leixlip, in The Irish Times, of probably 8/6/1901, wrote that in 1621 an inquisition was held on the death of Gerald, the 15th Earl of Kildare, included the Castle of Leixlip, etc. [Transcripts of Inquisitions.]

1623:  On 21/1/1623 the Lord Deputy and Council for Ireland issued a proclamation that priests, etc must leave the kingdom within 40 days or else suffer imprisonment, or conform and repair to church where they shall be protected. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (eds), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880, 21/1/1623, p339].

1623:  Sir Thomas Phillips’ Memoir from the Ordnance Survey, Phoenix Park, dated 1/8/1623, suggests that iron mills be set up as a great source of revenue with plenty of wood to maintain them and commodious rivers to export the iron. Would greatly fortify the country with English. It seems intended for Ulster, but may also have given a direction for Leixlip.[CW Russell and JP Prendergast
(eds), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880, 1/8/1623, p428-9].

1623:  A record noting that money is required to repair forts and castles to make them defensible against Irish rebels, till a greater charge is bestowed to make them hold out against foreign invasion. In Leinster, Mariborough, Phillipston, Leighlin and Wexford Castles are mentioned as requiring expenditure. There is no mention of Leixlip castle. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (eds),Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880, September1623, p430].

1624:  In May 1624, the Lord Deputy, Falkland, suggests a licence be issued to make ordnance [= mounted guns, cannon] of iron. [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (eds), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880, May 1624, p499].

1625:  Viscount Henry Carey Faulkland was appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland from 30/3/1625.[RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 1625, p1.]

1625:  Charles I appointed Francis, Lord Aungier, Baron of Longford, as Master of the Rolls in the manner of Sir Anthony St Leger, with authority to hear all causes and quarrels in the absence of the Lord Chancellor, 16/4/1625. [James Morrin, (ed), Calendar of the Patent Rolls Ireland, Charles I, 1863, p2.]

1625:  Nicholas White (2nd?) is mentioned as Secretary to the Lord Deputy in a document of 16/8/1625. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 16/8/1625, p30.]

1625:  A manuscript entitled ‘The Irish Monarchy’ contains a chronology of the monarchs of Ireland from Slanius, whose reign began 2481 AM, to Roderick III, surnamed Concobar, 1162 AD, and the coming of the English under King Henry II. It was “compiled from the works of Dr [Geoffrey] Keating and John Colgan and contains the relation of a variety of outrageous and remarkable acts attributed to the several sovereigns”. . [CW Russell and JP Prendergast (eds), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, James I, 1615-1625, London, 1880, 1625, p610].

1625:  Nicholas and William Eustace signed a Memorandum of the Lords of the Pale in answer to the King’s demands for money.  They were in an annex of ‘gentlemen’ who signed it. Nicholas is probably he of Confey and William is of Castlemartin. See c1627.  [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 1625, p70.]

1626:  Petition of John Woogan [=Wogan] showing that he is a native of Ireland of Welsh extraction, a Protestant and the late King gave him a pension of 18d/day. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 21/6/1626, p134.]

1626:  The Irish Commissioners report on Nicholas White’s petition for a pension; it was favourably received and considered just. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 5/7/1626, p138.]

1626:  Charles I wrote to Lord Faulkland on 8/7/1626 ordering that Mr Nicholas White, whose father was killed in the Crown’s service, and who himself served it, should be paid his pension. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 8/7/1626, p140.] There’s a record of his pension being set at 4s a day and of his arrears to be paid him [opus cit, 13/7/1626, p145].

1626:  Lord Faulkland wrote to Lord Conway to thank him “for the lucrative post found for my Secretary Nicholas Whyte [White]”.  [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 5/10/1626, p161.]

1627:  Pardon of an alienation made by Sir Thos Allen, of St Wolstan’s, otherwise Allenscourt, in the county of Kildare, of the manor of St Wolstan’s, Donacomper, Parsonstowne, Reives, Priorstown, and other lands, and of the advowsons of Donacomper, Killadowan, and Donaghmore, to Nicholas Preston and others.  Dated 6/3/1627. [James Morrin, (ed), Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Chancery in Ireland of the Reign of Charles I, 1st to 8th years incl., Dublin 1863, p241.]

1627:  Daniel Molyneaux, Ulster King of Arms and Principal Herald of Ireland, complained to king Charles I about abuses concerning arms and armory and issued instruction.. Dated 7/4/1627. [James Morrin, (ed), Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Chancery in Ireland of the Reign of Charles I, 1st to 8th years incl., Dublin 1863, p207-9.]

1627:  A List of Commissioners to the Counties of Ireland, published before 16/7/1627, presumably for raising money for the Army  -  includes in co Kildare: Sir Nicholas White; William Eustace, Esq, of Castlemarten. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 1627, p70.]

1627:  Grant to Maurice Eustace, of several rectories, tithes, lands, and hereditaments in the counties of Kildare, Catherlogh, Wexford and Dublin: to be held for ever of his Majesty, as of his Castle of Dublin, in free and common soccage [= paying rent]. Dated 18/7/1627. [James Morrin, (ed), Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Chancery in Ireland of the Reign of Charles I, 1st to 8th years incl, Dublin 1863, p251.]

1628:   A formal request from the people of Ireland to the King includes the following: the Church charges 13s 4d, 10s and 6s 8d respectively for every christening, marriage and funeral. This charge the poor husbandman, by whose labour the gentry live, cannot pay and is often compelled to go begging. The clergy then get warrants from the Lord Deputy and pursue their victims… This is confiscation by the Church. The answer includes: the clergy should not be allowed to keep private prisons for these purposes etc. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 1628, p337-8.]

1628:   By an indenture dated 27/5/1628 Thomas Fitzgerald transferred a lease to Sir Nicholas White for the remainder of a 41-year lease which commenced in 1611 after the expiration of Laurence Grenan's [?] lease, at a rent of £30 per annum. The lease was of the castle farm and tenements of 60 acres in the town and fields of Leixlip, which are situated in the County of Dublin, with a water-mill on the River Lyffye [sic]. [PRONI D'3078/1/10; MIC 541/6]

1628:  Indenture made the 13/6/1628 between Nicholas Viscount Nettervile of Dowth [co Meath] and Cary Connor [son of Leysagh Connor] of Leixlip in the co of Kildare, gent. Cary Connor hath acknowledged unto the Viscount one recognizance [=bond with court to ensure compliance] of the staple of £800 stg before Walter Ussher mayor of the staple in the city of Dublin, Robert Arthur, Francis Dowd, constables of the said Staple, bearing date with these presents as my the said recognizance of the said Staple more at large may appear as is now consented and agreed upon between the parties. And the said Nicholas Netterville for himself.. doth covenant and grant to the said Cary Connor.. that if the said Viscount shall and may peaceably hold, possess and enjoy the manor of Blackcastle, co Meath etc. Signed Netterville, and witnessed by 3 other Nettervilles. [D3708, NLI; summarised in Calendar of Ormond Deeds, prepared for the Mss Department, NLI by T Blake Butler, p187.] Further information in text of indenture.

c1628:  Richard and Reginald Hadsor, servants of the King, mentioned in the King’s orders about access to documents etc. [James Morrin, (ed), Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Chancery in Ireland of the Reign of Charles I, 1st to 8th years incl., Dublin 1863.]Could this family name be the source of ‘Headsor House’ [sic] at Blakestown, said to be the former home of the land steward at Carton demesne?

c.1629: Geoffrey Keating (c1570-1649) described the northern boundary of Co Kildare with Co Meath as running ‘from Dublin to the Abhainn Righe [the River Rye that enters the Liffey at Leixlip after flowing through Kilcock, Maynooth and Carton] westward to Cluain Conrach [Cloncurry] (and on to) the Ford of the French Mill --- to Clonard … to the Tocher of Carbury  .. to the Crannoch Geishille (Geashill).’ [Foras Feasa ar Eirinn, written 1629-1630, Vol 1, translated by D Comyn, 1902.]

1629:  Daniel Molineux [sic] surrendered his appointment as Ulster King of Arms and Principal Herald of Ireland, which he received from Elizabeth I (granted in the 39th year of her reign), on 28/6/1629. [James Mollin, (ed), Calendar of the Patent Rolls, Ireland, Charles I, 1863, p448.] Any connection with Molyneux of Leixlip iron mills?

1630:  By letter dated 23/9/1630 Lord Wilmot wrote from Dublin to Lord Dorchester supporting Sir Nicholas White -“the bearer is the son of a worthy father that served Queen Elizabeth all his lifetime and died a Councillor of State here. The son bought lands in Ormond before there was any notion of a plantation there and wants them..” etc. “If this is done he will probably be as useful a servant of the King as anybody in the matter of the Ormond plantation.” [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 23/9/1630, p580.]

1630:  Archbishop Bulkeley’s Visitation of the churches of the diocese of Dublin took place this year, in the reign of Charles I (reigned 1625-1649). The questions and answers sought were similar to those of the visitation of 1615. Only about 44 churches were found to be decently covered, compared to 123 ‘in repair’, and 11 others tolerable, in 1615. Yet tithes were collected in 143 parishes against 148 in 1615. Lands belonging to the crown which had been confiscated after the suppression of religious houses before 1536 were leased by the crown and called ‘impropriate’; nearly half of the parishes were of this category and in most cases the farmers of the tithes were Roman Catholics, who were often reported as ‘the abettors and maintainers of friars and priests and hath mass said in their houses’.
The tithe revenue of the Leixlip Deanery amounted to £154, less than half the next smallest of all the diocese’s deaneries and or c3% of the total for the diocese. Of the £154, £43 (28%) was paid out in stipends for the vicars and curates of the deanery. In the Archbishop’s report is written that Thomas Keatinge, clerk, is the vicar at Lucan, and there are not more than 5 in the parish that come to church. His means there, as certified, is not more than £4 per annum. Moreover, his wife is a recusant [RC]. While the church is in good repair, the chancel is ruinous. The rectory is impropriate, worth besides the king’s rent, £10 per annum. At Aderge, the church needs repair, and all the parishioners are recusants. The tithes belong to St Patrick’s Cathedral. Robert Jones is the curate. At Leixlipe, the church and chancel are ruinous. The tithes are impropriate, of which Mr Gerrott Whyte is the farmer and Thomas Keatinge is the curate. All of the parishioners except one or two families are recusants. For serving the cure he has £4 p.a. In contrast, the church and chancel at Confie are in good repair. The tythes are impropriate and are held by Mr Fagan of Feltrim. Keatinge is again the curate and receives £4 p.a. for this service. All the parishioners are recusants. At Donaghcumper the church and chancel are in reasonably good condition. The tithes, impropriate, are held by Mr Allen of St Wolstan’s and Mr Keatinge is again the curate. At Laraghbrine the church was in good repair, but the roof of the chancel is uncovered. The tithes, belonging to Mr John Parker, prebend of Maynooth, are worth £100 per annum. Thomas Keatinge is vicar there, the same being worth £10 p.a. All the parishioners are recusants. At Straffan, the body of the church is ruinous; the chancel is well covered, but wants glazing and necessary ornaments. The tithes, worth £36 p.a., are impropriate and belong to Mr James Duffe of Dublin, merchant. Edward Pierse [=Persse?], clerk, is vicar there and the vicarage is worth £12 p.a. There are not above 10 persons that frequent divine service in that parish. Teaghtoe, Kildroght and Killadowan [sic] seem to have become extinct, as no report is recorded for each of them. But perhaps they were not surveyed. There is no mention of Donoghmore near Maynooth. [Archivium Hibernicum, Vol VIII, Maynooth, 1941]

A translation of the Protestant Archbishop Laurence Bulkeley’s report is in ‘The Irish Ecclesiastical Record’, Vol 5, Jan 1869, p145-166. The survey was carried out after Bulkeley was allegedly insulted by the people attending Cooke Street chapel, with the royal authority ordering the confiscating to the state of all the houses employed for Catholic purposes through the kingdom. Many of the houses remained unsuppressed and mass continued to be held in private houses, often in those of the collectors of the tithes of the parish. In 1583 families who were members of the Reformed Churches of the Low Countries (Holland etc) were planted, eg, in Swords, but by the survey of 1630 most had become ‘recusants’. [Report, opus cit, p146] The information for the Leixlip deanery area is disappointing for its skimpiness compared to other areas. There is no reference to any Catholic priests or mass houses, or schools.  Confey church was in good repair, the tithes being held by Mr Fagan of Feltrim.  [John] Fagan of Feltrim was also the farmer of tithes of Mounctowne [Monkstown?] and Kilossery, which were in good repair and with a roof requiring a little repair respectively.    It seems as if Mr Fagan has been maintaining these churches, like Confey, out of his farmed income. Invariably where a church was out of repair, it was most often the chancel which was roofless, suggesting vandalism by the recusants?
 [For details of the Catholic family, the Fagans of Feltrim, see John Kingston, ‘Catholic Families of the Pale’ in Reportorium Novum, Vol 2, No 1, 1958, p 103-6.]  Richard Fagan was High Sheriff of Dublin in 1587 with a good reputation for charitable works, keeping three or four hospitals for prisoners at Newgate and the Castle. He died in 1610 and his son John Fagan was confirmed in his estate by (royal) patent the following year. John was succeeded by his grandson, Christopher Fagan, who married Ann White of Leixlip in 1636. All his lands were confiscated in the Cromwellian era and he was transplanted to Connaught. He was subsequently restored to his estates in 1670 as no act of war could be proved against him and he died at Feltrim in 1682. After the Williamite war Christopher’s son, Richard, who inherited the Feltrim and other properties was ejected to make room for the Adventurers who funded the war. One of Richard’s daughters married John Eustace of Confey.                      

1631:  Pardon of two alienations of lands in the counties of Meath, Dublin, Kildare and Drogheda, made by Sir Gerald Aylmer and others to Jenico, late Viscount Gormanstown, and by the said Jenico to Nicholas, Viscount Netterville, and others. Dated 14/3/1631. [James Morrin, (ed), Calendar of the Patent and Close Rolls of Chancery in Ireland of the Reign of Charles I, 1st to 8th years incl., Dublin 1863, p574.]

1632:  A list of all the Papist priests in the London Plantation cites 24 in all. Fees received by them: 2s for every married couple, etc.; also fees for churning butter, marriages, christenings, extreme unction, mortuaries and burials. In all they receive £1000, whereas the King only gets £855 17s from the plantation. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Charles I, 1625-1632, London, 1900, 2/1/1632, p643.]

1632:  Rev. Thomas Keating was the Vicar of Lucan; his death with original will was recorded this year [Deputy Keeper, 26th Report].

1634:  c August, 1634 a Draft Declaration of Irish Church bishops etc asserted: We will do our best to procure the building of every parish church.  Where we can not do this ourselves, we will get the Lord Deputy’s help, “by whose honourable care and particular direction above the number of 100 church in the counties, Dublin,.. Kildare [& 7 others] are already builded and repaired”. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, 1647-1660, London, 1903, c8/1634, p189.]

1635: Archdeacon William Bulkely, son of Archbishop Bulkely [aka Bulkelly, Bulkeley, aka Buckley], built Oldbawn House, Tallaght. [Patrick Healy, All Roads Lead to Tallaght, Dublin, 2004, p77-8]. The house was extensively damaged during the insurrection of 1641. He died in 1671 and was succeeded by his son, Sir Richard Bulkely. He died in 1685 and the place passed to his son and namesake. The latter lived mostly in England and died in 1721. His Oldbawn property passed to a son of his second wife, named Tynte, who married a granddaughter of Sir Richard Bulkely. The Bulkely family had property at what is now Buckley’s Lane, Leixlip, according to a map of 1793 made of Leixlip Demesne. See 1793.

1639:  The will of John Coppinger, priest, Leixlip, was proved in the Prerogative Court this year. He was a Jesuit. [Sir Arthur Vicars, Index to the Prerogative Wills of Ireland 1536-1810, 1897.]

1640:  A private Act of parliament of 1640 secured for Archbishop Lancelot Bulkeley [aka Buckley, later] estates and lands in counties Dublin, Wicklow and Kildare. He died at Tallaght, 8/9/1650, aged 81. [John d’Alton, History of the Archbishops of Dublin, Dublin, 1888.]

1640:  RS Simington (ed), The Civil Survey of Tipperary, Historical Manuscripts Commission, Dublin, records that Sir Nicholas White, Master of the Rolls, of Leixlip, held 572 acres, Plantation measure, in the barony of Lower Ormond this year. Dermot F Gleeson, writing of ‘The Ormond Freeholders of the Civil Survey’, JRSAI, Vol 66, 1926, p131-53, notes that a plantation on the lines of those in Leix and Offaly was projected but never took place. White purchased his lands there ‘long before the rebellion [of 1641], and.. he must be considered to have been a typical adventurer and projector’, i.e. a person entrusted with planting the lands with English settlers and supervising the estate he acquired.

1640:  Matthew Alen, aka Allen, who had lands at Palmerstown, Co Dublin, mortgaged them in favour of Arthur White of Leixlip by deed dated 20/1/1640 for a term of 99 years. [Brian C Donovan & David Edwards, British Sources for Irish History 1485-1641, p83, Irish Manuscripts Commission, 1997.] Arthur died and bequeathed the mortgages to his elder brother, Nicholas, who later established his right to them. [Nessa O’Connor, Palmerstown – An Ancient Place, Dublin, 2003, p103.]

c1641:  General Preston camped at St Catherine’s and Owen Roe O’Neill’s at Newcastle, with Cardinal Runcinni travelling (in vain) between the two to secure an agreement - unattributed report in a newspaper piece of 27/6/1903, possibly in Evening Telegraph article, entitled ‘In the valley of the Liffey’, has a sketch of lodge at St Catherine’s.[RD Walshe, Cuttings and Notes, Lucan and Leixlip, 20th c, MS 11658 NLI.]

1641:  The Book of Survey and Distribution [part reproduced in JKAS, Vol X, 1922-28, p197-197-199] includes proprietors’ names of lands in 1641 after the Civil Survey was carried out, together with the particulars of the lands and persons to whom given on the Cromwellian Settlement c1659. For example, James Eustace of Confey, Irish Papist, had Confey and Newtown, which was given to Margaret Plunkett and Thomas Eustace by Cromwell.

c1641: CL Adams, ‘The Castles of Ireland’ - Leixlip, in The Irish Times, of probably 8/6/1901, reports that Sir Nicholas Whyte held the manor of Leixlip upon the breaking out of hostilities in 1641. In the company of Lord Dunsany, Patrick Barnwall, Sir Andrew Aylmer, and other chief men of the Pale, he surrendered himself to the Lords Justice Parsons and Borlace in obedience to the King’s proclamation to show that they had no part in the rebellion, but they were imprisoned in Dublin Castle and most inhumanly treated. 

A Capt Wm Tucker recorded in his diary going from Dublin to Naas in this year with the Marquis of Ormond and sleeping the night at Leixlip Castle. He mentioned that the owner, Sir Nicholas Whyte, was at that time a prisoner in Dublin. [The source, Miss Adams, lists a collection of sources in her article, which is in Walshe’s Clippings on Leixlip, NLI.] 

1642:   A record of a receipt, dated 24/4/1642, for £100 paid by William Lambert, yeoman, of Surrey, for his Irish ‘adventure’. .[RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Adventurers in Ireland, 1642-1659, London, 1903, 24/4/1642, p44.]Note Lambert family in Leixlip in Easton House until 1980s

1643:  A share in an ‘adventure’ was assigned to Roger Lambert, London, citizen and linen draper, for £60, recorded 10/6/1643.
Note Lambert family in Leixlip in Easton House until 1980s. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, Adventurers in Ireland, 1642-1659, London, 1903, 10/6/1643, p107.]

<1646: An ancient bridge over the Liffey at the Salmon Leap, Leixlip, was carried away by a great flood some time before this year, when the Confederate Catholics, under Owen Roe O’Neill, broke up their camp and retired to Meath, and the troops had to construct a temporary bridge of timber to enable them to cross. Only one arch stood until recent times, as can be seen in the photographs of c1900 by John Valentine, etc. It is now submerged behind Leixlip dam. [Archdeacon Sherlock, ‘Some Notes on the Fords and Bridges over the River Liffey’, JKAS, Vol VI, No 4, July, 1910, p293-305.] General Preston made Leixlip Castle his headquarters, 1646. Preston was accompanied by the King’s secretary, Digby. Altogether there were 16,000 foot soldiers and 1,600 men on horses. He is said to have burned mills and crops and destroyed bridges. [Padraic O’Farrell, A History of County Kildare, Dublin, 2003, p50.]

1646:  The Council and Congregation of the Confederate Catholics (mostly the former, as the document is signed by several bishops and the Apostolic Nuncio) on the 15/11/1646, writing from Sigginstown, directed General Preston to send out parties to burn all the corn and grain stored on the Liffey downwards to Dublin, and from Dublin to Drogheda. The Council are unwilling to take this step, but the corn may fall into the enemy’s hands. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, 1647-1660, London, 1903, 1646, p540-1.]

1646:  Charles I, by letters dated 18/12/1646, granted to Thomas and Alexander Eustace the office or offices of Clerk of the Crown in cos Kildare and others for their lives. Alexander, who outlived Thomas, surrender these office and Charles II by his letters of 29/7/1667 intended that Wm Powell should have them. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, 1666-1669, London, 1908, 25/9/1669, p646.]

c1647:  Sir John Bath recommended Sir Nicholas White as a Captain of horse - “a man of fair estate in the English Pale”. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, 1647-1660, London, 1903, c1647, p100.]

1647:  Walsingham, writing on 16/6/1647 from Leixlip, asked General [Thomas?] Preston to march to Naas and Maynooth, to take them in if it be possible. “Press as much as you can, so you come not near Dublin, which you must take care to avoid, lest you spoil the whole business in hand. Be very secret in having any advice from hence, and be sure to conceal from all men. Your most faithful, humble servant, Walsingham”. .” [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, 1647-1660, London, 1903, 16/6/1647, p6797]

1647:  A letter, source unknown, to Luke Whyte [White] at Waterford, and dated 5/8/1647: “Touching the removal from hence, our opinions.. is to march towards Minuth [Maynooth], Leslip [Leixlip], and Literelstonne [Lutrellstown], and them at all times to have to for our security and retiration, [sic] likewise for the safety of the provinces and the  places lately gained from the enemy, to be at all times in readiness to spoil all the enemy’s quarters, from Tredath [Drogheda] to Dublin, and thence to Wicklow; to keep our quarters free from hostile incursion and, at the least occasion offered us to set on Dublin, at least to hinder their market there at Tredath and Trim, so that in a short these places will fall of themselves. Besides we may at discretion, according as occasion offer, fight with our enemy.” [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, 1647-1660, London, 1903, 5/8/1647, p740.]

1647-48:  A letter was to be sent to Inchiquin and Jones for recovering by exchange Archibald, Donald and Duncan and any other Campbells who are now prisoners at Kilkenny. .” [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, 1647-1660, London, 1903, 1647-8, p769.]

1648:  On 8/6/1648, a government order issued from Westminster seeking the accounts for the Irish service of Captain Thomas Harley, among others. Officers and soldiers who served in Ireland were rewarded with grants of the lands of deportees, or transportees to Connaught .The Hartley name owned a good deal of land in along the N4 road to Mullingar and land around Leixlip, including the lands of Confey Abbey and cemetery as recently as 1900. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, 1647-1660, London, 1903, 8/6/1648, p18.] See 1656.

1648:  Orders of the Commissioners of both Houses for Irish Affairs at Westminster included a letter dated 24/8/1648 written by Colonel Jones, recommending that Sir Robert Knight enjoy St Katherine’s in Dublin, leased to him by Sir Nicholas White and two of his sons. [RP Mahaffy (ed), Calendar of State papers relating to Ireland, 1647-1660, London, 1903, 24/8/1648, p26.]


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