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PROSPEROUS 1783 - ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW MANUFACTURE

Brooke Prosperous Pamphlet 1783 72dpi.jpg
THOUGHTS
ON THE
ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW
MANUFACTURES
IN
IRELAND
OCCASIONED
By the late FREEDOMS we have OBTAINED
WITH
An account of the MANCHESTER
MANUFACTURY,
ESTABLISHED BY,
Mr. BROOKE
WRITTEN
By a Friend of his in the County of
KILDARE.


 


D U B L I N:
Printed by P. Highly, No. I, Henry Street,


MDCCLXXXIII.
 
 
 

 



DEDICATION.
To the Man whose Charities and Humanity are extended and invigorated with the encrease of his Years; who has long lamented the forlorn State of the Poor of Ireland, and whose Purse so liberally poured forth to their Relief, the Writer presumes to dedicate the following Pages. As their Tendency is to promote Industry, and as they describe the first great Efforts which have been made to realize the Expectations and Wishes of those who rejoiced at the Attainment of our commercial Liberties, he is confident the Subject, however indifferently handled, cannot be unpleasing to old Mr. LATOUCHE
 
THOUGHTS, &c.
PERHAPS the first rise of the Emancipation of Ireland was the new and spirited idea started by Mr. BURGH (1), in the House of Commons, "That nothing but a Free Trade could "effectually relieve the Kingdom," and this idea has since been pursued even to the attainment of our political Liberty.---The First grant of a Free Trade created a general ferment in the imagination of all thinking People in the Kingdom; many flattered themselves that the various Arts and Businesses in which England excels, would be immediately introduced and established here, and some Gentlemen of landed property went so far as to invite Weavers, Dyers, and others from Manchester, under the notion that providing them with an eligible situation was all that was requisite. --These theorists were so ignorant of the nature of manufacturing, as to suppose the businesses could be established by collecting a number of ingenious artists together, not adverting that even where manufacture is conducted distinctly in its different departments of spinning, weaving, dying, bleaching, printing, &c. &c. the heads of each require a capital. But men possessed of capital and in a regular line of business are never easily induced to remove to another country, whatever advantages are held forth; the idle and drunken workmen who are out of employment, or ambitious of becoming masters, are fond of emigrating, and Ireland speedily swarmed with the scum of the English manufacturing towns.
            MANY schemers were induced by these emigrants to make attempts in different manufactures, which necessarily fell to the ground where want of capital was on one side, and knavery or drunkenness, though united with skill, on the other.
            THE few men in this kingdom who have acquired a property by trade or business are cautious, and know well the trouble it cost them, and are not inclined to risque it in what bears the appearance of scheming; and again, those to whom a property had fallen by descent, were in general too warm in the pursuit of pleasure, and despised trade too much, to think of embarking in manufactures.—Besides, experience had shewn the danger of attempting any thing out of the common beaten path, as we have scarcely an example of a fortune made in Ireland by any manufacturers except those concerned in the linen business, wherein an export trade had been encouraged: indeed the narrow limits of home consumption, and the distressing consequences of an over-stocked market, rendered it impossible for any manufacture to flourish in Ireland, whilst similar fabrics, the redundance perhaps of the English market, were admitted at a moderate duty, and our own redundancies had no foreign vent.
            THUS, former attempts in manufactures having proved in a great measure abortive whilst the restrictions lay on our trade, and recent attempts having miscarried from the causes already mentioned, the laudable spirit of enterprize naturally excited on the attainment of our liberty, might have died away had not some notable example been exhibited to prove that a well founded plan, pursued with unremitting attention and steady perseverance, would finally conquer all difficulties.
            MR. BROOKE was one of those who on the grant of a free trade looked about for a little time in hopes of encouraging manufacturers to settle on his lands in the County of Kildare; without being himself engaged in trade; but he soon discovered his error, and accident threw in his way a set of Manchester artists who had been just disappointed of employment by some gentlemen by whom they were invited hither, and Mr. Brooke, after some little conversation, engaged the whole party.
            Thus he embarked in a business of which he was totally ignorant, it was therefore the more necessary, as he justly observed to me, to recur to first principles, and lay a solid foundation for an undertaking of such magnitude.---The general and leading ideas were, first, to establish the same prices for workmanship as in England; the second, to be supplied with such machinery as enabled the English to work at low prices, and at the same time make perfect goods; the third, was to guard against the ruinous consequences of drunkenness and combinations; and the fourth, to erect the factories in a plentiful country, not far distant from the capital, and where firing was cheap---It was in vain on these principles to attempt the establishment in Dublin, and to graft the manufacture on a country town would have incurred most of the difficulties---He therefore determined to build on his lands in the County of Kildare adjoining the Bog, and convenient to the Grand Canal, and immediately began a Factory for spinning and weaving, and a few houses for weavers: whilst these were in hands he cleared out some out offices and set to work a carding machine, a spinning jenny, and a loom with the fly shuttle, all of which one of the party had brought over, and he dispatched another of the party to Manchester for machinery, and a few hands yet wanting in some departments of the business. The principal he placed in an extensive concern at Dolphin’s-Barn where there was the convenience of water, and here all necessary preparations were made for executing the cutting, drying, bleaching, and finishing branches.--- Thus all commenced with spirit, and in a few weeks one piece was produced which from its quality, proved that the same hands, with the same apparatus, could execute as good work in Ireland as in England, notwithstanding the common opinion to the contrary.
            THE public soon reaped the advantages of the dying factory in Dublin, as cotton goods before this period were neither cut, dyed, dressed or finished as in England, a number of looms were therefore quickly set to work on different cotton fabrics by manufacturers in Dublin, and the corporation of Weavers, sensible of these advantages, presented Mr. Brooke with his freedom, expressing their thanks in very strong terms --- he has also been complimented in a similar manner since by the Guild of Merchants and the Corporation of the City.--- Had Mr. Brooke confined his dying factory to the execution of his own goods it is probable the cotton manufacture would not have extended for some years so rapidly as it did in a few months.--- But indeed from what I can find out he never entertained an idea of monopoly, but rather held it subversive of the public interest, and ultimately of private interest also.
             THE person he had sent to England for machinery and workmen spent his time in his own private affairs, squandered the money he was entrusted with, brought over unskilful hands and a variety of machines, which, after expending four fold their original cost in putting to work, altering and repairing, were finally broken up as totally useless, and so was twelve months work of a machine-maker this man had brought over at high wages. These miscarriages with respect to machinery incurred various difficulties, the most embarrassing of which was that of being unable to furnish the weavers with a due supply of weft; however early measures were taken to obtain good machines, for as soon as it was discovered that that first messenger had betrayed his trust another of the workmen was dispatched to England, and he executed his commission faithfully. But, Mr. Brooke, at length perceived that a much greater number of machines were requisite more than he at first imagined, and that the delays and expence of procuring them from England was an insuperable bar to speedy extension. He therefore encouraged Mr. Kirchhoffer, a noted Cabinet-maker in Dublin, to undertake machine making, and he afterwards found that this was one of the earliest steps he should have taken: But notwithstanding he supplied his best models, yet it was with infinite labour and expence Mr. Kirchhoffer arrived at perfection, as making any part of these machines is a trade in itself, and any one part ill-made or imperfect, rendered the whole useless. At length he collected the different artists under his own eye, and the difficulties with respect to machinery were surmounted, which had impeded Mr. Brooke’s progress as well as many others in the cotton business.
             DURING this period, a number of houses were built and filled with weavers, most of whom Mr. Brooke was afterwards obliged to discharge, being idlers or drunkards; indeed few others would attempt removing to a new establishment the success of which must appear doubtful: sober and diligent workmen naturally fall into constant employment under masters who know their value, and such workmen, as I before observed, are seldom willing to change. However, though very great losses were incurred in discharging from time to time such numbers from the factory, yet as most of them were ingenious workmen, the sober and diligent country weavers who still were taken in to fill the vacancies, acquired in a short time the knowledge of the different works, and skill with sobriety became united in the settlement.--- This fixed determination so frequently exerted, of at once discharging any man who appeared a leader of cabals, a drunkard or an idler, without shewing any respect to his superior skill, or any fear of losing what had been advanced to him, operated most effectually towards the establishment of due subordination and order.
             BUT it is necessary now to mention the reception the goods met with in Dublin market.--- At first they found a ready sale, and several dealers in Manchester goods seemed pleased at the attempt, and as Mr. Brooke had determined within himself to confine his sales to people in the trade, he withstood every solicitation of the numerous friends to the undertaking to admit the manufactures to be sold by retail on his account, but referred them to those shops who had bought them.
            BUT the goods coming fast into market and not having a proper place or agent for the disposal of them, it was judged advisable to appoint factors for the sales, and a very respectable house in a central situation was chosen for this purpose.--- But though the small parcels at first manufactured found a ready sale, yet when large quantities were brought to market the jealousy of the importers became awakened, and whether the Manchester merchants apprehended rivalship in this kingdom, and entered into a subscription as some affirm, or whether it was owing to a decline of trade in consequence of the war, yet the fact was that numbers of people were constantly employed in bringing Manchester goods to Dublin, most part of which they smuggled in the packets from Liverpool, and these they sold at reduced prices, gave greater length of credit than usual, and for fifteen months continued with every appearance of determined perseverance in a plan which it was hard indeed for an infant undertaking to withstand. But Mr. Breresford and the other commissioners with the truest patriotism took measures which tended to support our manufacturers against this attack, and but for the illicit imports would have had a perfect operation: they ordered the full duties to be levied on the entry of such goods as passed through the Custom-house, which full duties had been hitherto evaded by entering them under false denominations, and here it should be mentioned that the manufacturers of Ireland are peculiarly indebted to Mr. North, one of the land waiters, for his having executed the orders of the board with uncommon zeal.--- A zeal of such a nature is seldom liberally rewarded. ---but why are fees admitted in theses departments at the Custom-house? Why are not the salaries adequate to the employment and trust?--- Is not human nature already too prone to deviate from duty and rectitude without being needlessly exposed to temptation.
            To return---the stock of goods in some time began to accumulate as the market became glutted with English fabrics, and application was repeatedly made by Mr. Brooke’s factors to the ware-houses and to the retailing shops. These frequent solicitations, as the factors informed me, induced in eight or ten months rather more than half a dozen of the numerous retailers in Dublin, and three or four of the wholesale dealers to come and look at the goods: Their patronage thus deceasing in proportion as the manufacture extended, and the stock having accumulated to the amount of many thousand pounds, and some low artifices having been practised to injure the character of the goods, Mr. Brooke was at length compelled in his own defence to have recourse to a temporary expedient, and permitted his factors to sell by retail: The effect of this measure soon convinced him that the public tide was in his favour, and inclined him to believe that the Dublin shop-keepers had not seen clearly their own interest by compelling him to a measure inconsistent with the established rules of trade, but this perhaps may be of but short continuance, and indeed ‘tis matter of surprize that the Dublin retailers do not endeavour to come upon some footing with Mr. Brooke, as I cannot see, provided they had due profit on Irish goods, that it could do them any service to prefer the sale of English.
            IT is absurd to suppose that the importing merchants, as long as they continue to consider an import trade as the only mode of employing their capital, should wish to promote what might render importation unnecessary, and of course turn the trade from them into other channels. Yet into other channels it will surely fall, therefore these gentlemen should arrange their system in conformity to the recent revolution in our trade, and drop in with the general current instead of attempting to stem it. Without entering into refined disquisitions on the nature of trade which frequently betray one into salacious theories, I should conceive we should study and pursue the methods practiced in England, and which experience has proved to be successful, the similarity of our constitution will now admit of our following her example, which we could not do heretofore--- There, the interests of the merchant of London are one with the interests of the manufacturers in the country; the industry and ingenuity of the one become a source of wealth to the other, the merchant supports by his credit and capital the exertions of the manufacturer, and enables him to extend with spirit.--- The capitals of each are thus doubled, and trade flourishes in proportion.
            DURING the long period wherein Mr. Brooke wanted sale for his goods, it was a fortunate circumstance that he steadily persevered in making such articles as might be deemed staple, and not liable to remain in hands by any variation of fashion.--- The happy consequences of this were immediately experienced on the peace, as several merchants and gentlemen, sanguine friends of the manufacture, subscribed and purchased goods to a considerable amount, which were shipped for America. On this occasion Messrs. Cope and Binns were particularly active, and Sir William Gleadowe Newcomen, Bart. and Co. shewed their zeal to forward the manufactures of Ireland. From this period the business took a favourable turn, private merchants made considerable purchases for the American market, a most promising trade was opened with the Portugueze, and a flattering prospect as Ostend---It is here but justice to mention what I have frequently heard Mr. Brooke declare, that were it not for that steady support he experienced from Messrs. Latouche in discounting bills at long dates, particularly at times when the mercantile world were most distressed, it would have been impossible for him to have extended himself, or brought the business to its present state. I have heard him also express in warm terms the sense he entertained of the frequent civilities shewed him by Messrs. Finlay and Co. but he was happy in having had the general good wishes of the public, and such a property as obtained him confidence.
            IT is rather singular that an export should be opened of a manufacture introduced only about three years since, but such is the effect of a spirited pursuance of the same means, and introduction of the same machinery by which the manufacture flourishes in England, and happy were it for the kingdom if other manufacturers, particularly the woollen, would adopt this mode, we should not then remain much longer an object of ridicule in the eyes of Europe for having neglected to avail ourselves of that freedom for which we so gloriously struggled.(2)--- It is yet more singular, that whilst we are able to meet our neighbours on equal ground at a foreign market, that we should maintain an import trade, for home consumption, of the same commodities loaded with a duty of 10l. per Cent besides other charges.--- I should conceive this to be owing to some uncommon peculiarity in the disposition of my countrymen.
            MR. BROOKE’S undertaking attracted in its early infancy the kind notice of the Duke of Leinster and many of the neighbouring gentlemen, who have since steadily continued their patronage and granted roads to the settlement, which prove of the utmost utility.--- The Grand Jury of the county paid Mr. Brooke the flattering compliment of visiting the factory, and mentioning it in their address to the Earl of Temple.(3)---The Lord Primate granted money for a church.--- The Dublin Society with their usual zeal to assist infant undertakings, lent their aid by forming premiums calculated to assist the cotton works. But Mr. Brooke’s great inducement to persevere was the favourable manner in which his petition to parliament was received through the now Lord Chief Baron’s representation;--- this opened a prospect of public support, suited to the extent of the plan; the buildings were therefore (on the parliamentary grant) prosecuted with new vigour, the place soon became more populous, a weekly market was naturally formed, public houses were permitted for the sale of malt liquors, but the proprietors prohibited, on pain of instant dismission, to vend spirits of any denomination, and I will venture to affirm that this regulation, which has been religiously maintained, has contributed essentially to the rapid success of the establishment, and that Ireland will never arrive at a state of respectability till malt liquors become the beverage of the poor, and spirits for home consumption so taxed as to give malt liquors a decided preference---Gardens were formed behind each of the houses, which tend to keep the weavers healthful, and supply them with potatoes and other vegetables. Every family that had been industrious was provided with a milch cow, the rents were regulated in weekly stoppages, numbers of apprentices were taken in by the weavers and spinners---But here I must observe a very unexpected, and almost unaccountable circumstance, viz. that it was with the utmost difficulty, and after the factory was nearly two years established, before any of the children of Mr. Brooke’s former tenants or labourers could, as he informed me, be prevailed upon to learn any branch of the business, yet now ‘tis quite the reverse.
            IN 1782, there was an unfortunate rise in the price of cotton to nearly treble its usual price, and its long continuance at this exorbitant rate bore very hard on the young settlement, and had nearly put a stop to most of the manufacturers in this line,---here perseverance was indeed necessary, and the temptation to draw back very powerful, where a number of people were kept constantly employed at a certain loss. But about this period, Mr. Foster, by whom the interests of this kingdom are perhaps best understood and most widely promoted (4), was instrumental with several other members of the linen board in obtaining the patronage of that body to the mixed linen and cotton manufacture, a patronage of such importance again determined Mr. Brooke to persevere.---It may not be improper here to observe the intimate connexion subsisting between the linen and cotton manufactures, and the superior advantages this kingdom must have in foreign markets over others in all fabrics wherein linen yarn is used in warp, for as we may be supposed to stand now on nearly equal ground with respect to the raw cotton, machinery and the prices of workmanship, the chief hope of meeting our neighbours at an advantage abroad and where they have established connexions is by bending our attention to those goods which are of mixed linen and cotton, as our having the linen yarn on better terms, turns the scale in our favour, and a very small matter in point of price opens a door for their reception. During the period in which cotton bore such a high price, Mr. Brooke finding there was little employment at his dying factory in Dublin but for his own goods, judged it eligible for this reason and others which are unnecessary to mention, to concentrate the whole of the business in the country, and accordingly began to build houses for the different workmen who were to be removed; but just as a competent number had been finished, the Earl of Temple sent for Mr. Brooke and informed him that a party of skilful hands from Manchester had come hither in their way to America, and that it was wished their emigration should be prevented by their being taken into employment here, and pointed out to Mr. Brooke that his endeavours to engage them would be agreeable, which he did immediately, and brought several of their families from one of the most distant parts in the kingdom; but Mr. Brooke’s trouble and expence was amply repaid on this occasion by the kind attention of the matter to Government in England obtained his Majesty’s letter, which was couched in terms highly flattering.
            BUT now fresh buildings became necessary, as those prepared for the dyers and other workmen belonging to that department were occupied by these emigrants, and Mr. Brooke commenced again vigorously and acquired new spirits to proceed by a handsome grant made him for machinery, &c. by the linen board, who had previously sent to Mr. Arbuthnot, their Inspector General, to view and report on the state of the works.
            MR. BROOKE has now very nearly compleated and united the whole of his undertakings at his new town. An adequate idea of the manner in which the business is there conducted, and of its nature and extent is only to be formed by viewing it,--a gratification from which no one is prohibited. Indeed it must be delightful to see a little Manchester which has sprung up in three years space, to see the various improvements concentrated at one spot which have wrecked the invention of thousands of the most ingenious mechanics to discover, to see one of those great manufactures, the pride, the boast, and endless source of riches to England, at once established and firmly rooted amongst us---Extension now is alone required---the demand for goods is without limit---the unemployed of Ireland numberless---But how can a single capital supply houses and employment to every one?
            TO conclude, those gentlemen who are acquainted with the general state of the lower orders of people in this kingdom know well that nearly two thirds of the peasantry are in a most wretched state. Without adverting to the cause they are called idle and slothful---I acknowledge they are so, and the meaner vices, lying, flattery and theft are naturally predominant amongst slaves; in vain then do we look for the virtues of a free people amongst our peasantry.---But supply the means of industry before we condemn our poor as unconquerably idle, and when they become independent by their labour the virtues of a free people will gradually ex(….)tirpate the vices attendant on flattery, and the penal laws may then be enforced, when circumstances so alter as to render the plea of necessity, not as at present, too often well grounded and unanswerable.
            O! thou once oppressed and enslaved nation, little did the most sanguine hopes of thy warmest friends expect the day of thy present emancipation!---Thou art free, but it is time, patience and labour, that must precede the enjoyment of the fruits of thy liberty. When shall that industry thy poor may now freely exert, become universally diffused, that thy children may remain no longer naked, thy dwellings no longer shock the eye of humanity, and thy only portion in the cattle around thee be the toil of tending, or driving them to market. We shall indeed have reason to boast the liberty we have so happily acquired, when the major part of the natives of this kingdom are cloathed, fed and housed, as the peasantry in our sister kingdom.---
HOW pleasing then must it be to every true friend of Ireland, to see the strides Mr. Brooke has made at his new town towards this desirable object, to see cleanliness instead of filth, order instead of confusion, diligence and sobriety instead of sloth and intoxication, comfortable dwellings instead of wretched hovels; to see plenty and health instead of want and rags, to see a place where the number of a man’s children constitutes his riches, instead of dividing the scanty meal into yet smaller portions, and from feeble age to childhood there are suitable employments: Finally, where an idler cannot exist, and where the industrious cannot want---A place, which to the neighbouring country is like the heart to the human body, extending a secret but warm principle of life, which may yet serve to animate the remotest parts of the kingdom.
FINIS
 
(1).Now Lord Chief Baron.
(2). (Extracts of Lettes from Messrs. EDDYS SYKES and Co. dated New-York, 8th and 24th May, to Messrs. COPE and BINNS, of Dublin.
By the Darragh we are favoured with your esteemed, 9th March, inclosing invoice sundry cottons. The Corduroys are better and cheaper than we expected, and we have the pleasure of informing you that they are approved of equal to Manchester manufactory. The colours of your Corduroys are good, being of the proper Olive.
We sold a number of pieces of Corduroys at Auction, which will leave a good profit."
(3). Report of the COMMITTEE appointed by the GRAND JURY of the County of Kildare to inquire into the state of the Buildings and Manufactures at the Town of Prosperous.
1st. That the situation of the town is particularly eligible, as well in respect of fuel as water, close to the bog and near the Grand Canal.
2nd. That the buildings are in general of brick and slated, safe, comfortable and convenient.
3rd. That there are factories of very great extent, fully occupied by carding, spinning, and various other machines, and considerable additional buildings, almost completed to contain greater works, and a bleach-green covered with cotton goods.
4th. That we perceived with real pleasure, an appearance of order and regularity in the conduct of every department, uncommon cleanliness throughout the town, and the inhabitants in general comfortably clad; all of which happy circumstances we must chiefly attribute to the spirit of industry and sobriety, which the establishment of this manufacture has so suddenly introduced.
5th. We are further pleased with seeing about seventy-five boys and girls, who are apprentices, cloathed in a regular uniform, and daily learning arts hitherto almost unknown in this kingdom.
6th. Our curiosity was highly gratified by tracing the progress of the cotton through the various operations, and the number of ingenious machines thro’ which it passes, in the processes of carding, spinning, weaving, bleaching, and printing; the apparatus for these last mentioned stages of the business, is but recently established here, but appears to us in respect to the machinery used, the convenience of the buildings, and the management of the water, to be admirably calculated for the most enlarged and perfect business.
7th. In addition to the great range of buildings in which the printing and bleaching works are carried on, there are a number of dye and work-houses almost completed for the finishing branches of this comprehensive undertaking, and these we understand, are all that remain undone to concentrate the whole of the business at this spot, where three years since, there was not even a house to be seen.
8th. We received singular pleasure from the appearance of universal industry which pervades this settlement, the sound of the loom, and the noise of machinery, were heard throughout, and the healthful and happy countenances of the inhabitants, afford a striking proof, that it is the establishment of a proper system, and supplying the means of industry, which alone are wanting to render the lower order of people in this kingdom happy, and we must necessarily conclude, that establishments like this would be the only certain means to prevent emigrations, by affording employment to every age and description.
9th. We perceive that a manufactory of such magnitude and extend as Mr. Brooke’s, would necessarily furnish bread to an infinite number of people, more than the actual artists employed in it, and we therefore lament that the appearance of this town as yet resembles, too much that of a body without proportionable members, and for want of a sufficient extension of buildings, that hundreds are thus deprived of enjoying that bread which might be afforded here to the lower, and more common kinds of industry. And we presume that were these circumstances universally known, private persons who now look forward from their native country to a settlement in the Western world would prefer employing the capital required to transport them thither in settling in a situation where every species of industry must necessarily thrive under the regulations which are here maintained for the preservation of good order and sobriety.
10th. At the same time that we must express our admiration at the exertions and spirit of an individual, in persevering and bringing to such a state of maturity, an undertaking to which the united efforts of a company should seem necessary; we must express our earnest wishes, that it may proceed to such a degree of extensions as to give supply to all foreign markets, as well as home consumption, there being now demand infinitely beyond what could be executed in the number of buildings hitherto erected.
Resolved unanimously, That the enterprizing yet well regulated exertions of Capt. Brooke, merit our highest approbation, and that we deem it incumbent in us thus publicly to testify our sentiments of this spirited undertaking.
Signed,
MAT. AYLMER, Sheriff.
ROB. POWER, Foreman.
 
ADDRESS of the COUNTY of KILDARE to the LORD LIEUTENANT
 
May it please your Excellency,
WE the High Sheriff and Grand Jury of the County of Kildare beg leave to assure your Excellency that we feel the highest satisfaction in the appropriation that your Excellency’s conduct as Chief Governor, has so universally met with.
We heartily concur in applauding your Excellency’s exertions for this country’s prosperity, of which we have a strong instance in our county, by your kind and well judged assistance to the manufactory established by Capt. Brooke.
It is with sincere concern that we perceive great reason to believe, that a Viceroy so capable and so willing to assist our welfare and establish our constitution, is shortly to resign the government of this kingdom.
MICH. AYLMER, Sheriff.
ROB. POWER, Foreman.
His EXCELLENCY’s Answer.
I return you my best thanks for the satisfaction which you express of my conduct in this Government, which from unavoidable circumstances I am obliged to quit, and for your assurances of regard and of esteem.
I felt a real pleasure, upon principles of public duty, in giving every encouragement to the manufacture established by Capt. Brooke, to whose merit I am happy to bear this testimony in words very inadequate to the sense I entertain of the obligations which this kingdom owes to his activity, zeal, and public spirit).
(4). "What we have hitherto said of the means by which a nation may acquire a superiority over another in point of perfection in workmanship, proves that manufactures cannot support themselves in a flourishing state without some assistance. They are indebted for that state, partly to the concourse of several various causes, always collected in one point of view by the legislature, whose wisdom and vigilance direct them equally towards the same end.
Whatever care the preservation of so rich a mine requires, the greatest difficulty of all lies in the first finding out and opening of it: the strongest efforts are never too great then. Rude and ignorant men are to be instructed, and their hands taught to have more intelligence than their heads are susceptible of; and those novices are to be made not only to equal foreign rivals consummate in their art, but even to influence and seduce those who are to judge between them.
The means generally made use of in France to encourage the establishment of manufactories, are to purchase at the public expence, the particular secrets, either for preparing or dying materials, or the engines, whether new, or not known there before; and to grant rewards proportioned to the importance of such new undertakings. Those rewards, always judged necessary, are personal distinctions and prerogatives granted to the directors of the undertaking; funds advanced; proper places allotted to save expence at first, till the profits became certain; the purchasing of what is manufactured, or wrought, at a fixed price during a certain time; a thing by no means to be slighted, and of which great advantage has been and may be made; or lastly, a bounty on the exportation of those productions, until they are able to compete with foreign productions of the same kind at their proper market.
No part of the state, but the stakeholders, can find fault with those expences; because they are the only men, who would not be repaid their disbursements with usurious interest. That remark alone sufficiently shews that states have not any more certain way to increase their riches.
A last way to encourage manufactories, is to annex an idea of merit and distinction to the profession of manufacturers, or of those who by their extensive correspondences procure a vent for their productions abroad. That is but just; since those men, the merchants, are the dispensers of employment and food to the industrious workman, and of the cultivator’s reward. The state is in a manner partner in the merchant’s profits, without sharing the hazard he runs, or the fatigues he undergoes; and, therefore, ought never to slight him, but cherish, caress, and honour him. The productions of labour and ingenuity may, in general, be compared to a piece of clock-work; the springs of which relax and spoil, when not taken care of, and which at length stop if not wound up in time. The men who keep those springs in order, who compose, connect, and put them in motion, ought to be distinguished by their country and by every citizen who is a friend to it."---See POSTLETHWAYT’S Commercial Interest explained.
 
 
 
Just published by PAT. HIGLY, Printer and Bookseller, No.1, Henry –street, and Corner of Liffey-street, Price 6s 6d.
THE HISTORY of the REIGN of PHILIP the THIRD, KING of SPAIN. By ROBERT WATSON,LL.D. Principal of the United College, and Professor of Philosophy and Rhetoric in the University of Saint Andrews.
*** The universal Reputation acquired by Doctor WATSON in his HISTORY of the REIGN of PHILIP the SECOND, KING of SPAIN, leaves no Doubt but that the above Work will meet the Approbation of the Curious.
Doctor WATSON HISTORY REIGN PHILIP SECOND, KING SPAIN,
Doctor WATSON HISTORY REIGN PHILIP SECOND, KING SPAIN,
Likewise,
LETTERS on USURY and INTEREST, shewing the ADVANTAGE of LOANS for the BENEFIT of TRADE and COMMERCE. Price bound 2s. 8 ½ d.
 
Also,
The FAIR NUN, 2s 8 ½ d.
ANNA, a Sentimental NOVEL, 2s 8 ½ d.
BURTON WOOD, 2s 8 ½ d.
LETTERS Written by the late
LORD LITTLETON 3s 3d.
 
 
 
 
 

A pamphlet by 'a friend' of Mr. Brooke's on the establishment of his cotton manufacture in Co. Kildare at Prosperous. The pamphlet is an original from the local collection in the Local Studies Dept. of Kildare County Library and is dated 1783.

[Compiled and edited by Mario Corrigan; edited and typed by Niamh McCabe; all spellings and grammar of the original retained; formatting retained as much as possible - original notes appear as footnotes but appear here in transcription as endnotes]


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